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Management Assignment: Principles and Practices of Organisational Management


Task: Your task is to prepare a management assignment addressing the following questions:
Question 1
Critically examine and discuss the best way to understand the part that motivation plays when an organization is embarked on a program of achieving change. Justify your answer using ONE (1) process perspective theory and ONE (1) content perspective theory. What would be your recommendation for future companies facing change Support your answer with literature and practical examples.

Question 2
(a) Explain the areas of management in general and with examples from any chosen company of your choice.
(b) Explain the primary functions of management. In your opinion, which management function is the most vital for the success of the organization you chose and why What other functions will managers have to perform in the future
(c) What are the possible levels of managers in the organization you have chosen How do the managers at each level perform the management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling differently


Answer 1
Potential of motivation concerning a management change critically discussed in this management assignment
Motivation is a process that helps guide, initiate as well as maintain goals-oriented behaviours on behalf of the workforce of an organization. With the implementation of motivation theories or models, an organization or industry could gauge knowledge and management practices that are required for managing issues or changes (Specht et al, 2018). As per Firdaus, &Handriyono, (2018) it was stated that in Indonesia the wood industry had ace a strenuous situation. This situation negatively impacts the financial condition of the SMEs related to the wood industry. This situation was caused due to the termination of exportation rules and regulations and changes in the legislature system by the government of Indonesia. The wood industry at that moment was growing as an international business rapidly. There was a lack of paying organizations in the wood industry related to working performance and product innovation. This product management was the most efficient cause of lesser exportation.

Therefore, in the change management within the organizational structure, the Indonesian wood industry adopted the motivational approach and implemented some theories to pay attention to the lack that had been created along with minimizing the transportation issue. According to Zhang et al, (2021), in recent times, the USA airlines industry along with the airlines’ industry across the globe had to suffer from a financial crisis due to the uncertainty of the lockdown period. The USA airlines industry faces a major problem like employee turnover. The airline industry implemented leadership models as a motivational part for changing administrative issues or mismanagement. This implementation also supported the airline industry to enhance working efficiency, taking action against the pandemic situation within the country and outside the country to mitigate the financial crisis and so on. Thus, it could be stated that motivation plays a crucial role as an influencer for the change management of any organization.

Critical analysis of theories
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory

This theory is one of the content-based motivational theories. The content base theories evaluate the surge of motivation based on any situation or anything. This theory sheds light on the basic 5 needs that every person requires to develop a personality. The five needs are, therefore, physiological, safety, social, esteem, and lastly, self-actualization needs. As per Cui et al, (2021), Tesla Inc. was renowned as a producer of the most effectively designed electrical vehicle (EV) organization. This organization implemented this theoretical model to measure the working efficiency of the employees, engineers, and also to measure consumer behavior concerning the products. This implementation supported this organization to achieve organizational change management in reference to human resource management. Moreover, the company has taken several steps to implement intrinsic motivation rewards in order to encourage its workforce to contribute in a much better way as well as keep them always motivated at the workspace. In order to effectively do this, Tesla Inc. has made their work environment flexible so that each and every employee can possess the opportunity for developing their personal self (Sabir, 2018). Furthermore, feelings of accomplishment, providing the opportunity for learning something new each time, allowing the employees to choose the projects to work on as well as building trust for the hierarchies of the company are some of the intrinsic rewards motivations that have been implemented by the organization.

However, in contrast, Fadeyi, (2020), argues that Tesco Pvt. Ltd. had also faced numerous issues over the last few years especially in the pandemic situation. The major issue was the employment turnover due to job satisfaction and security of a job. At this moment, this organization implemented the theory of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs for motivating employees. The higher authoritarian team ensures employees by motivating employees for understanding job security. Tesco plc. has also implemented intrinsic rewards motivation at their workspace which eventually helped in increasing employee interest in their job roles and responsibilities (Michael, 2019). Thus, they have now been focusing on developing new skills as well as improving their existing ones to contribute in a much efficient way than before.

Adam’s equity theory
This theory is one of the process-based motivational theories. The process base theories evaluate the procedures of motivation that are generally implemented for profitability in any situation or anything. Zhou, Govindan, &Xie, (2020), opine that this theory entails that the fruitful result at any level occurs with the best contribution of hard workmanship with impacting motivation levels. Also, this theory indicates the interrelation between equality and equity concerning individuals. In the words of Yang, Lee, & Yang, (2020), it could be illustrated as the person's accommodated contribution towards a set of goals, whereas, the outputs could also be symbolized as a fruitful result.

Yang et al., (2020) contradicted that equity theory is mostly beneficial for implementation as a motivational tool to change and manage efficient management at the workplace and employees. Unilever as an organization is renowned for its service qualities. The services are provided to the consumers with the best possible quality by enhancing workmanship within the organizational structural framework. Though, from the previous years, in the human resource management of this organization, there were some issues concerning employment and employee’s workmanship. There was a lack of paying attention to the issues occurring related to the employment like changes in working wages, lack of health and safety practices by the employees, working time management among employees and so on. Unilever also has implemented extrinsic rewards motivation among its working individuals. This has enabled the company to reward extra money to the employees on a better performance. Furthermore, several other reward packages have been issued on behalf of the organization such as recognition from others, status as well as fame at the work environment by announcing the eligible employees who have shown their excellence in performance (Firdaus&Handriyono, 2018). Thus, employees of the organization are motivated from time to time which is primarily intended to developing their trust for the organization as well as encouraging them to develop their both personal and professional skills.

Hanelt et al, (2021) commented that in the era of digitalization, there are many organizations thriving for survivability in the competitive market. For instance, in the UK, along with Tesla there are numerous electrical vehicle car selling organizations like Alcraft motor Ltd., Mitsubishi outlanders Ltd., and so on. Technological advancement in a short time is a serious concern for these organizations. The skilled employee management and employment of skilled employees could gain competitive advantages for these EV car selling organizations in the UK with the implementation of a theoretical framework. In this contrast, Nangoli, et al, (2020) stated that organizations are required to implement Maslow’s hierarchy of needs for motivation theory to achieve business goals and address contemporary issues. This theoretical model has numerous benefits as it is oriented to focus on individual needs. This could always indicate in any organization to their human resource management. Furthermore, these organizations such as Tesla Inc., Mitsubishi outlanders Ltd. and Alcraft Motor Ltd. can also dig deep into the intrinsic rewards motivation in order to keep their employees always motivated at the work environment. These organizations can introduce flexibility to their workspace so that employees also can contribute their own thoughts on the organizational development. This would allow them to feel their importance at the organization as well as be more engaged. On the contrary, Zhou, Govindan, &Xie, (2020) argued that Adam’s equity theory could only emphasize workforce management at these organizations. Equity management could only improve the working environment and for achieving job satisfaction by the employees in the matter of employee management. In every organization organizational change management is of utmost necessity. Organizational change management could be interrelated to employee management, workforce management, goal management, consumer behaviour management or consumer relationship management, and so on. (vanHeerden&Mugova, 2019). In the future, organizations should focus on implementing theoretical models for achieving and mitigating the issues in particular situations. Furthermore, the extrinsic motivation rewards can be adopted by these organizations which will enable them to reward the workforce on performing better. This will further increase interest of the working beings over their job responsibilities. Thus, an additional focus will be given on development of the both personal and professional self on behalf of the workforce (Syam et al., 2018). This will eventually contribute to the overall performance of the company.

Answer 2
(a) Management Areas
This part of the essay will shed light on the major areas of management that are seen in organizations generally. In the following, these management areas are being demonstrated in brief.

Production Management
It is one of the primary management areas in an organization that solely focuses on the production of the company. It involves both the manufactured goods of the company as well as services that the organization provides. This particular management further includes two primary steps that are followed in general.
• Input: It involves various materials as well as different types of equipment that eventually help the company transform the raw materials into outputs (Sabir, 2018). In many organizations the output are services provided and, in those cases, the input functions include the workforce as well as company policies that help form the suitable service modules for the customers.
Output: This simply refers to the goods as well as services that an organization produces using the raw materials. As per Nangoliet al. (2020), production management also is known as Operation management that helps an organization perform many relevant functions towards manufacturing the company output. This management also enables an organization to handle its materials in the most suitable way and prepare the layout structure of the existing functional modules. Moreover, production management also allows the company to formulate capacity planning for having a clear understanding of its current status (Duránet al. 2018). Craignellis a small plastic product manufacturing organization that primarily focuses on this management to produce home appliances.

Financial Management
It is another management that is considered crucial for any business structure. It is highly involved with how an organization develops its financial policies and makes decisions accordingly (Nangoli et al. 2020). The primary responsibility of this management is to arrange and utilize the organizational funds in a proper and systematic manner. Currently the financial management focuses on two aspects such as Profit maximization and Wealth maximization (Sierra et al., 2020). The next part of this essay will shed light on these two major approaches.

Traditional Approach: This approach has been used for decades by various types of industries. This approach helps procure organizational funds and manage long-term sources as well as avoids the short-term financial requirements of the company.

Modern Approach: This modern approach focuses on arranging funds for the organization from various sources as well as utilizing those in the proper manner (van Heerden&Mugova, 2019). This modern approach thus, is involved with different scenarios in the business such as the number of financial sources, the distributed number of profits as well as the size and volume of the firm.

Morgan Stanley Wealth Management is a company that follows the modern approach in order for managing its organizational resources. Human Resource Management
This management allows an organization to manage its workforce up to a desired mark. It is highly associated with developing the policies for the working individuals at the organization. This management is responsible for various duties such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating as well as controlling the workforce (Sabir, 2018). Furthermore, this particular management focuses on the following points.

Utilizing human resources of the company in efficient manner
Motivating the employees for a greater contribution
Formulating plans, policies as well as procedures
Achieving the organizational objectives
Providing training from time to time to the employees

Purple Ink is a HR organization in which this management plays the most crucial part in its businesses.

Marketing Management
This functional area of an organization is responsible for the flow of goods as well as services directly to the customers. The primary activities that this management performs in organizations generally are planning, organizing, controlling, directing as well as coordinating. This management is involved with the organizational procedures through which the sellers and buyers exchange their values (van Heerden&Mugova, 2019). The following part of this report will shed light on different marketing functions.

Identifying the opportunities in the contemporary target market
Planning effective opportunities in the market
Evaluating marketing efforts
Providing motivation to the workforce involved with marketing

Deloitte Digital is a renowned company that focuses on its marketing management primarily.

(b) Functions of Management
Management functions involve various sectors of an organization. In the following part of this report, the five primary management functions will be elaborated in brief.

The management officials of the company tend to make the organizational decisions in a rational as well as systematic way (Wolniak, 2020). This further involves launching effective planning programmes on behalf of the company as well as evaluating the factors that possess much potential to affect these functions in future so that suitable measures can be taken.

This also helps assign the eligible employees for those tasks by clearly defining their both authority as well as responsibility (Vdovenkoet al., 2018). Furthermore, this function also involves establishing a relationship between authority and responsibility in order to develop coordination.

This management function includes the process of recruiting, training, compensating as well as developing the workforce up to a competitive margin (Sierra et al., 2020). It is highly involved with the intelligence, knowledge, skills, experiences, physical condition, age as well as attitudes of the working individuals.

This managerial function is concerned with leadership, communication and motivating the workforce (Vergéset al. 2019). Finally, the officials take care of the supervising function in order to keep the workforce always updated.

This includes four primary functions such as establishment of standard performance, measurement of actual performance, comparing the performance with the predetermined standard and taking the corrective actions.

Justification of the most vital management function Affirma Consulting and USA based consultancy firm. In this particular organization, Staffing would be the most vital managerial function. This is because the staffing function allows the company officials to choose the best candidates as their employees (Spechtet al., 2018). Thus, only the eligible candidates would get the chance to serve at the company and so the organization will possess a strong workforce to serve its customers further most effectively which eventually can bring organizational profits up to a satisfactory margin.

Recommendations for other management functions
Affirma Consulting can focus on its controlling and directing managerial functions along with the planning as well. This would allow employees of the company to have a clear knowledge regarding their market job roles and responsibilities to make it even better.

(c) Possible managerial levels in Affirma Consulting
There are two managerial levels in the company including the project manager and the partners. In many cases, the senior consultants who acquire enough experiences in the field often play managerial roles for Affirma Consulting.

Planning: They are responsible for analyzing the current status of the organization and plan for making the next move (Abramset al., 2018). They are the head of this managerial function.
Organizing: Project managers play the most important role in organizing the workspace by developing coordination among the working individuals as well as identifying gaps in the organizational structure.
Leading: These managers are responsible for leading the workforce in the right direction and play a hierarchical role in this.
Controlling: This function is included in their day-to-day tasks (Syam et al., 2018). This involves monitoring the working individuals closely to measure their progress over a particular period of time.

Planning: They provide secondary ideas in enriching the plans constructed by the project managers (Vdovenkoet al., 2018). They primarily follow the plans and seek out gaps to fulfil those further according to the current organizational status.
Organizing: Senior consultants are responsible for following the pathway that has been demonstrated by the project managers (Michael, 2019). They contribute their parts in this managerial function by performing the tasks in the right manner.
Leading: Senior consultants contribute in this part by leading the junior managers and the general employees of the organization.
Controlling: This managerial function is followed by the senior consultants by observing the junior consultants as well as the ground-level staff.

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