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Risk Management Assignment: Crowd Management During Sports Events In United Kingdom


Task: For this risk management assignment, you should prepare a Research Proposal with an approximate length of 2000 words (+/- 15%) on the topic “Crowd Management during major events”.


1. Introduction
1.1 Research Background of Risk Management Assignment

With the growth of the popularity of the events, there is a raising need for crowd management (Pouwet al., 2020). The crowd in major events such as sports events are often unmanageable, which leads to the progression of several issues. The change of behaviour of people gathered in a crowd for an event has been considered to be the most significant issue. In order to deal with these issues, there have been several methods introduced to manage the crowds in sports events (Boukerche and Coutinho, 2019). The methods to manage crowds often depend on several factors, such as the size of the event, reasons for the event, and the demand from the crowd. Any negative feeling of the crowd can cause several issues such as property destruction, murder and hooliganism. These issues give rise to gaps in the security and safety of the events and the people associated with them (Yang and Lam, 2020). Crowdsafe is a company that deals with various kinds of crowd management, and they have extensive experience in managing crowds at sports events in the UK. It is one of the largest crown management companies in the UK.

However, there are several obstacles that are faced by the company while efficiently managing the crowd in sports events, such as it being highly time-consuming. Moreover, the aspect of difference in opinion can also cause smaller outbursts in a crowd, which has been seen to take a huge shape in no time (Solmazet al., 2019). Moreover, the lack of sincerity in security protocols and their planning in advance also lead the events to face mismanagement of crowds at several incidents, which is a primary concern for the safety of the audience as well as the relevant parties associated with the events.

1.2 Research Rationale
It is noticed that people tend to act differently than their natural behaviour when they are a part of a crowd. It is mostly observed in a big crowd in sports events, which can lead to several issues due to differences in opinion (Sharma et al., 2019). In order to comprehend the aspects and different dimensions of crowd management in sports events, this particular investigation has been approached. The previous research attempts regarding this area of the subject have been extremely limited and lacked prominent elaboration, which appropriates the undertaking of this topic for research. Moreover, the results that are aimed at through this exploration will allow the facilitation of positive educational or academic as well as business implications.

1.3 Aim and Objectives
1.3.1 Aim

The fundamental aim of this proposed research has been determined to be the evaluation of the aspect of management of crowd during major sports events in the UK.

1.3.2 Research Objectives
The millstones formed in terms of objectives for this exploration attempt to reach appropriate research results are:
• To determine the significance of efficient crowd management in any sports event irrespective of its size in the UK
• To understand the difficulties caused due to the lack of appropriate management of crowd at a major sports event in the UK
• To identify the basic methods adopted for the management of crowd at a major sports event in the UK
• To analyse the obstacles that are encountered during the implementation of methods for the management of crowd at a big sports event in the UK
• To recommend several ways to deal with the issues faced during crowd management at a major sports event in the UK

1.4 Research Questions
• What is the significance of efficient crowd management in any sports event irrespective of its size in the UK?
• What are the difficulties caused due to the lack of appropriate management of crowd at a major sports event in the UK?
• What are the basic methods adopted for the management of the crowd at a major sports event in the UK?
• What are the obstacles that are encountered during the implementation of methods for the management of crowd at a big sports event in the UK

2. Literature Review
2.1 Significance of Efficient Crowd Management in Any Event

It has been observed that the management of the crowd is one of the primary duties of the host to maintain the safety and security of an event for its proper execution. As mentioned in the study of Khan et al. (2017), the behaviour of a small group is crowd is able to affect the whole crowd and push them to behave in that manner, which creates several issues for an event to be executed. People have been noted to behave differently when in a group or in a crowd where they are faceless.Tatrai (2021) stated in his study thatthe expression of emotions takes huge turns due to this issue. Furthermore, without efficient management of the crowd, the message or the purpose of the events are often subdued, which is not desired by the hosts.

2.2 The Difficulties Caused Due to The Lack of Appropriate Management of Crowd at A Major Event in Sports
There are several problems that are caused in a sporting event due to the issue of mismanagement of the crowd. According to the findings of Alginahiet al. (2019), the purpose of the events is lost in most cases due to the mismanagement of the crowd, along with several other issues. One of their primary issues caused due to the improper management of crowdsin major events is related to the aspect of security and safety. It has been noticed lack of efficientcrowd management can lead a crowd to cause mass panic, property destruction, bodily harm, hooliganism and often murder, which is the main issue of security. Sports like a marathon, football, cricket are highly regarded in the UK, which leads a huge crowd during the major sports event regarding these sports, and they have often given rise to issues of crowd mismanagement due to the difference in opinion. With respect to that, it has been observed from the study of Tatrai (2021) that aspect of crowd management is regarded as one of the main parts of the aspect of risk management and security. Moreover, there are other issues for inefficient crowd management, such as the loss of goodwill of the host.

2.3 The Basic Methods Adopted for The Management of Crowd at A Major Sports Event
With respect to the proper management of the crowd in sports events, there are some steps that are taken up. As stated by the study ofSolmazet al. (2019), one of the primary steps is to know the audience or the members of the crowd. It is the initial step of crowd management and is highly imperative to be undertaken. The second step is to ensure a proper plan in advance by understandings the nature of the crowd and their desires. Then the third segment of the aspect of crowd management is the proper assessment of any probable or possible risks that might arise due to the crowd during the sports event regarding its outcome. After that, the relevant parties are informed regarding the risks and the plan firmed for management of the crowd. Then the extensive use of signage is made to avoid chaos in the events. Apart from that, in relation to the findings of the study of Kennedy (2019), several hosts also limit access to alcohol to prevent a mass panic in case of emotional outbursts of the crowd, which is often common in major sports events and can lead to harmful consequences. Moreover, several attendees are placed in a position to answer the questions of the crowd and manage the chaos. Lastly, the best security is hired in major events to avoid any outbreak of panic and control them with force if needed.

2.4 The Obstacles That Are Encountered During the Implementation of Methods for The Management of Crowd at A Big Sports Event
It has been noticed that various issues arise while executing the methods of crowd management in big or major sports events organised. As per the suggestion of Yamin, Basahel, and Abi Sen (2018), one of the primary issues that have created problems in the management of crowds in major events is regarding the aspect of lack of comprehension of the requirements of the crowd. As a crowd is considered to be volatile, a lack of comprehension of the needs of the crowds often leads to improper management of the crowd. In addition to that, another issue is related to the individualistic opinion and disagreement between the members of the crowd. It leads to mass chaos and undermines the efficiency of the methods for the management of the crowd at a big event.

2.5 Literature Gap
Concerning the research in hand relating to the evaluation of the facet of management of crowd at major or big sports events, few gaps have been identified while reviewing the literature for the proposed research. The most significant gap identified here has been the absence of adequate discussion and elaboration on the section of crowd management during sports events in the UK.

3. Proposed Research Methodology
3.1 Research Philosophy

The philosophy that will be adopted and applied for the conduction of this investigation relating to the evaluation of the facet of management of crowd at major or big sports events in the UK with respect to half and full marathon is the interpretivism philosophy. With the adoption of the interpretivismphilosophy, it has been duly noted to allow a researcher to gain the capability to gather information from observations made in the past concerning the subject matter undertaken in the research(Goertzen, 2017).

3.2 Research Approach
Selection of the best-suited approach is essential for the fulfilment of the objectives of research with the attainment of a proper outcome, and thus, in order to reach appropriate results, the investigator will settle for the usage of the inductive approach. With the assistance of the usage of the method aforementioned, an investigation is able to be carried out objectively and with extensive accuracy(Moraga et al.,2020). This will help the researcher in the collection of the secondary data properly with the accuracy and validity of the results, which will be collected in this research. Moreover, this method will be appropriate considering the nature and broadness of the subject matter concerned with the research, which cannot be carried out with the use of the deductive approach, which tends to focus on primary data.

3.3 Research Design
The design which will be adopted for this certain exploration drive is the descriptive design considering the fulfilment of the objectives in relation to the assessment of the aspect of supervision of crowd in main sports events regarding half and full marathon. This design has the ability to permit researchers to attain a complete overview of the subject and gather data through a detailed study of secondary resources concerning the management of crowds during different events(Schoonenboom and Johnson, 2017). Hence, it will be appropriated for this investigation.

3.4 Research Strategy
The strategy that will be the bestsuited for this specific investigation drive concerning the critical analysis of the aspect of management of crowd in major marathon events is the qualitative strategy. Through the employment of the qualitative strategy in the investigation has the ability to lead a researcher to attain the collection of data from secondary sourcesand extensively evaluate the different management of crowd during various forms of events (Tong and Zuo, 2018). The adoption of a qualitative strategy will allow the researcher to be more efficient in reaching desired results by gathering secondary data, and thus, it will be appropriated.

3.5 Data Collection
Among the two kinds of data that can be collected, the secondary data will be chosen or gathered for this particular exploration purpose of evaluating the aspect of management of crowd in major events. The past events of research and their findings are stored, which are used as secondary data in investigations(Van den Bergand Struwig, 2017). The sources which are generally used for the collection of a secondary form of information are books, journals, articles and reports which are concerned with the subject matter taken up in the research. For the purpose of this research, all these sources will be utilised. Moreover, the sources will be selected based on relevancy in order to attain the most relevant data, which will lead to the achievement of the fulfilment of the results as desired. The secondary data will be chosen for assortment as primary data will not be possible to be collected due to the extensive guidelines of the authorities regarding the pandemic situation, along with the consideration of the nature of the research topic.

3.6 Data Analysis
The tool of content analysis will be appropriated for usage for the analysis and presentation of data that will be collected on the basis of the elements or dimensions of the management of big crowds during any major event. Moreover, this specific tool of content analysis has been considered to be the most efficient one for the proper analysis of secondary data gathered through an in-depth study of the findings reached previously by researchers(Žukauskas, Vveinhardtand Andriukaitien, 2018). Furthermore, the usage of this tool will be appropriate for this investigation as it is cost-efficient and not time-consuming and extensively support the overall objectives of this paper.

3.7 Ethical Considerations
The consideration of ethical values has been seen to enhance the aspect of reliability along with validity in the results of an investigation, which is highly imperative for a researcher(Saunders, Lewis,and Thornhill,2007). With respect to that, regarding the critical evaluation of the aspect of management of crowd in major events, several ethical values will be considered during the execution of the investigation. The closed sites will not be approached for this particular investigation, and the data protection acts in place will be followed in order to avoid any kind of ethical issues. Moreover, the ethical codes bestowed by the university’s committee of ethics will be regarded during this exploration.

3.8 Research Timeline


4. Conclusion
This proposed research is regarded with the aspect of evaluating crowd management and its dimensions during any major event. The methods that will take into consideration for the dissertation has been stated here with respect to the purpose of the study, which is also a part of this proposed research. Moreover, to provide a brief insight on the subject matter, a review of the literature has been given here. With the help of the findings, the scholars in the field will be able to continue to explore by making it’s the base for knowledge, which will result in positive academic implications. Moreover, the hosts and different businesses will be able to execute crowd management properly for any major event, which will allow them to gain goodwill in the market in the immediate industry.

Reference List
Alginahi, Y.M., Mudassar, M., Kabir, M.N. and Tayan, O., (2019). Analyzing the crowd evacuation pattern of a large, densely populated building. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 44(4), pp.3289-3304.
Boukerche, A. and Coutinho, R.W., (2019). Crowd management: The overlooked component of smart transportation systems. IEEE
Communications Magazine, 57(4), pp.48-53. Goertzen, M.J., (2017). Introduction to quantitative research and data. Library Technology Reports, 53(4), pp.12-18.

Kennedy, L.P., (2019). Policing Protests: An Exploratory Analysis of Crowd Management Policies (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nevada, Las Vegas).

Khan, S.D., Tayyab, M., Amin, M.K., Nour, A., Basalamah, A., Basalamah, S. and Khan, S.A., (2017). Towards a crowd analytic framework for crowd management in Majid-al-Haram. arXiv preprint arXiv:1709.05952. Moraga, J.A., Quezada, L.E., Palominos, P.I., Oddershede, A.M. and Silva, H.A., (2020). A quantitative methodology to enhance a strategy map. Risk management assignmentInternational Journal of Production Economics, 219, pp.43-53.

Pouw, C.A., Toschi, F., van Schadewijk, F. and Corbetta, A., (2020). Monitoring physical distancing for crowd management: Real-time trajectory and group analysis. PloS one, 15(10), p.e0240963.

Saunders, M., Lewis, PHILIP and Thornhill, ADRIAN, (2007). Research methods. Business Students 4th edition Pearson Education Limited, England. Business_Students_Chapter_4_Understanding_research_philosophy_and_approaches_to_theory_development/ links/5c53056f299bf12be3f0e2cf/Research-Methods-for-Business-Students-Chapter-4-Understanding-research- philosophy-and-approaches-to-theory-development.pdf Schoonenboom, J. and Johnson, R.B., (2017). How to construct a mixed methods research design. KZfSSKölnerZeitschriftfürSoziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 69(2), pp.107-131.

Sharma, D., Bhondekar, A.P., Shukla, A.K. and Ghanshyam, C., (2018). A review on technological advancements in crowd management. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 9(3), pp.485-495.

Solmaz, G., Wu, F.J., Cirillo, F., Kovacs, E., Santana, J.R., Sánchez, L., Sotres, P. and Munoz, L., (2019). Toward understanding crowd mobility in smart cities through the internet of things. IEEE Communications Magazine, 57(4), pp.40-46.

Tatrai, A., (2021). How do we solve wicked problems Effective crowd management. Journal of Behavioural Economics and Social Systems, 3(1), pp.52-65.

Tong, J. and Zuo, L., (2018). Social Media Research: Towards an Inductive Approach. In Tweeting the Environment# Brexit. Emerald Publishing Limited.
Van den Berg, A. and Struwig, M., (2017). Guidelines for Researchers Using an Adapted Consensual Qualitative Research Approach in Management Research. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 15(2). idArticle=463
Yamin, M., Basahel, A.M. and Abi Sen, A.A., (2018). Managing crowds with wireless and mobile technologies. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 2018.
Yang, W. and Lam, P.T., (2020). An experimental contingent valuation of users’ attitudes towards a Crowd Management System. Safety Science, 121, pp.231-239.
Žukauskas, P., Vveinhardt, J. and Andriukaitien, R., (2018). Philosophy and paradigm of scientific research. Management Culture and Corporate Social Responsibility, 121. Research+Philosophy&ots=pG_P9MOmMA&sig=3DvFDmaIPbnBRxi_7T1W3dlFO_E


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