Clinical Psychology Assignment: Case Analysis Of A Patient With Psychological Concerns
Karen is a 20 year-old who has been referred to the Clinical Psychology service from her GP. Karen reports feeling low and is experiencing a significant amount of stress about her university studies, noting that she’ll “probably fail.” She spends much of her day in the halls of residence watching Youtube and has a hard time identifying what, if anything, is enjoyable in a typical day. Karen rarely goes to lectures and has avoided seeking help to improve her grades. Karen has always been a self-described shy person and has had a very small group of friends from her childhood. Notably, her level of stress significantly increased when she began university. When meeting new people, she has a hard time concentrating on social interactions because she worries what they will think of her, assuming they will find her “dumb,” or “boring”. After the interaction, she replays the conversation over and over again, focusing on the “stupid” things she said. Karen has begun avoiding her friends and is not answering phone calls or other attempts at communication.
Description of Clinical Psychology Assignment
You are required to write a single 3000-word exploratory case study report on the above case study. The case study report should be no longer than 3000 words (this includes all in-text citations but does not include the reference list).
Content and detailed guidance
The case study report must have the following sections and structure
Section 1: Background Information
In this section, a concise overview (in your own words) of the person being discussed in the case study should be provided drawn from the details provided in the case study notes.
Section 2: Presenting problems
In this section, you should discuss the problems presented in the case study for the individual and link them to theory and research drawn from the individual difference’s literature. Ensure that citations are used to support your claims and a critical analysis is provided of the theory and research drawn upon from individual differences. Section 3: Intervention Provide an outline of a potential intervention that could be provided to address the presenting problems that draw upon the psychological theory and research studies covered in Section 2 above. Ensure that testable hypotheses/research questions are provided along with an outline of the research design and methods that would be used to gather data to evaluate the proposed intervention.
Section 1: Background Information
The case study is about a stressed-out girl Karen with her feelings for her result in the university studies. She has already gone to her general physician for her condition of not feeling good around people. She does not seem happy among her friends due to a self-described shy character. She feels anxious about her interactions with her friends, and she replays her conversations to find any fault in them. She thinks that she always speaks with some stupidity. This twenty-year-old girl is too shy to talk to her friends, and became very conscious after the admission in the university. She assumes that everyone will find her boring and dumb. However, the most crucial concern and reason for her stress is the condition of her studies, and she feels that she might have failed the university examination.
Even after getting stressed about the examination result, she does not focus on her studies. This girl is not worried about her studies, and she felt bad regarding studying or going to the library. At the same time, Karen does not feel free to talk to her professors and attend the classes to get the expected results. She does not go anywhere from the halls of residence, and she watches YouTube videos all day. However, she does not get anything interesting to surf. Most importantly, she does not find anything enjoyable in a typical day. Most importantly, she does not go to her tutors for any help to improve her grades. She does not feel courageous to talk to her professor regarding the process of increasing her marks in her examination. Therefore, she had options to improve her grades by reading carefully rather than wasting time on the YouTube videos for enjoying the day. On the other hand, she had options to try to find meaningful and fruitful ways to spend her days to complete the allocated tasks and manage the entire procedure of completing the study.
Her self-declared shyness has affected her ways to talk to people and communicate efficiently. It is not possible for her friends and professors to help her without knowing the conditions of her mind. Moreover, she did not ask for help from anyone in her circle. However, her general physician has identified the psychological condition of Karen that is de-motivating her to complete her study efficiently. Along with that, she is not enough confident to communicate with her friends to avoid talking about any “stupid” things.
At present, Karen is not receiving any calls from her friends, and she is not interested in any communication. Therefore, Karen has been referred to a clinical psychology service from the end of her general physical. After analysing her mental state and psychological condition her GP has not taken any risk with her health condition, and referred her to the clinical psychology service.
Section 2: Presenting Problems
Problem of Karen revolves around feeling absurd while communicating with others, and rethinking the communicated factors while speaking to anyone. Karen is feeling low and stressed regarding university studies. In this case, her individual approach towards the world along with she plays a critical role in shaping up her behaviour to stay in the falls of resilience and not attending the classes properly. Primarily, every individual is different from each other when it comes to identification of characteristics and implying the procedure of communication. Differences in the characteristics and variation in the form of work distinguish one from another.
Karen is an individual with her own perspective and needs for society along with a unique approach towards behaving. She is a self-described shy girl who cannot communicate with others confidently, and she thinks she talks about stupid things (Carter, 2017). For example, Individual Differences Theory has focused on mass communication from the perspective response of individuals in different ways. For example, it is not possible for the individuals to react and respond to any specific situation in only a specific way due to different approaches of individuals towards any specific situation (Becker, 2020). Along with that, some people require information to respond to any situation while some people work on getting an integrative approach towards identifying belonging to any situation. On the other hand, escapism is another part of individual approach that is different from the categorisation of the excited people from the end of affective people.
Individual differences play a crucial role in identifying the single or number of characteristics in someone on the basis of deviations and variation in the behaviour. At the same time, from the perspective of psychoanalytic approach of individual differences theory it is essential for the individuals to consider the distinguished characteristic and behaviour among individuals (Hughes & Evans, 2018). Most importantly, the theory helps identify the difference between the approaches from humanism and psychoanalytic approach of behaviour.
Primarily, individuals can find many types of individual differences, including differences in interest, attitude, values, psychomotor skills along with the habits, and self-concept (Devine, 2021). For example, in this case, the self -concept of Karen is entirely different from others. This twenty-year-old girl finds herself not acceptable or stupid from her words. At the same time, she thinks her dumb or bore. However, she has not tried to talk to anyone. Most importantly, it is also essential to consider the importance of having support to complete her task and managing the entire process of communicating through self-confidence.
It is not possible for this girl to recover from her condition without having self-support and confidence in her values, judgments and attitudes. Most importantly, she requires support from friends and family members to let her know about her qualities and abilities along with her behaviour regarding any specific situation. It is essential for her to boost the level of confidence and performance to work more efficiently. Along with that, negative self-image is also another critical part of identifying different approaches towards behaviours and values (Siegelmanet al. 2017). For example, individual difference theory also provides importance to the values of individuals. For example, Karen does not find anything interesting in her life to do. At the same time, she watches Youtube, and she does not have any interest in upgrading her marks by getting help from the professor. Therefore, it is very difficult for the clinical psychology service provider to help her without motivating her to help herself.
The lifestyle of Karen with her religious beliefs and support from family members can help efficiently to manage the entire situation. For example, it is essential for the girl to maintain balance in her life regarding making decisions related to going to class and attending the lectures. It is quite tough for any student to upgrade the results of examinations and find a solution for a stress-free life from the perspective of better education without going to the library and joining classes. In such a condition, she has already stopped receiving the calls from her friends and family along with communication with others (Matthewset al. 2018). From this aspect, it becomes very important for the psychology service providers to identify the behaviour of Karen regarding education.
Study habits of a student are the most important factor in getting help from the professor to improve grades in examinations. Along with that, individual differences theory also shows the importance of finding out the differences among individuals regarding study habits. For example, while some of the students study seriously some of the students do not show interest in every subject. However, it has also been identified that some of the students do not find interest in any subject at all. In this case, Karen also has different individual characteristics from her friends as she does not study efficiently. Along with that, she does not find the study interesting or enjoyable (Stewart & Kirkham, 2020). From that perspective, it is the duty and concern of the clinical psychology service provider to count the importance of studying efficiently and motivating Karen to complete her study on a daily basis. However, self-respect and confidence is also essential for Karen to develop in her daily life as she fails to talk to her friends confidently. Along with that, she does not find enough confidence to talk to the professors to get any help. Individual difference theory has also identified the importance of psychomotor skills that are also different in the lives of people (Jarrett & Vince, 2017). Along with that, it's also crucial for the service providers to consider the importance of having interests and encouragement in any specific area. For example, some students feel attracted and confident enough to interact with the professors and friends. Some of the students fail to work efficiently and communicate with others.
Most important factor in the aspect of finding problems in the case of Karen is to identify the importance of having different approaches and unique lifestyle as the reasons for having individual differences. The classic personal theory such as individual difference theory always identifies the importance of having individual differences along with the reasons for having differences from the aspect of individual work. For example, the nature of Karen is not to talk to others and feeling shy. In this case, it is essential to identify the different dimensions of growth and development of Karen along with the specific abilities of this girl when it comes to identifying the reasons for having individual differences.
Psychoanalysis approach of individual difference plays a crucial role in this case that can help in the healing of the client. For example, it is essential for the service provider in the clinical setting of psychological approach. For example, leveling up of the consciousness is essential for the organisation when it comes to accomplishing goals. Along with that, diving complexities and going beyond that is essential in the approach of psychoanalysis. Karen is a lonely girl who does not feel good while talking to others, and thinking about the previous conversations too much. From that aspect, it is crucial for the people to find the consciousness out of sub-consciousness to create a better dimension for learning. Psychoanalysis approach the theory has identified the conflicts regarding finding out the most creative aspect of life by identifying the process of engagement. It is not possible for the service providers to help Karen without working on the process of engaging her. Along with that, protecting individuals from the conflict among the different parts of mind, including Id, Ego, and Superego is the most important part of this theory. In this case, different dimensions and mechanisms include protection, denial, repression, and regression. Along with that, sublimation and displacement are other crucial aspects and the process of defending from the process of working more efficiently.
In the process of repression, the ego that is the conscious mind of individuals threatens people and creates disturbing thoughts due to consciousness. It is no different in the case of Karen as she has identified the importance of her work and the procedure of meeting others. She has identified a lack of confidence in her due to the repression as she has failed to console her that no one will consider as a dumb or bore. It is essential for the individuals to think about themselves positively as it is the only way to stay connected with everyone. It is also essential to consider that denial is another critical aspect of psychoanalytic approach among the people when it comes to managing beliefs and acknowledgement. It has also been identified in the case of Karen as she has become too conscious regarding her behaviour. It has also been identified that Karen has started to deny her importance and enjoyment in this world. She has lost her interests from every aspect of life. Her usage of the device has also made her more inactive in actual life.
Karen is a girl with the potentiality of learning new subjects and implementing those knowledges in real life. However, she has failed to convince herself to manage the entire procedure of learning, and she has lost the interest in studying efficiently. She has not even found the proper friends who can help her to work efficiently. It is also crucial for the working professionals in the service providing clinics regarding psychological cases to consider the projection and attempts of the conscious mind of Karen to go through the unacceptable thoughts. Karen is not able to go beyond her issues as she has forgotten about the motives and feelings in her life. She does not have any interests in improving her lifestyle and getting help from anyone else. She also has no courage to accept the help from others. Primary reason for such a fact is that her thoughts are not helping her to meet the expectations of herself. Most importantly, she believes in her incapability and inabilities. However, it is the duty of the service providers to underpin the procedure of projection in the entire process of helping her to go beyond the issues regarding feeling shy and taking help from her professions.
Stress is the most critical part in the life of Karen that has affected her approach towards impulsiveness. Psychoanalysis approach of the individual theory on difference plays a crucial role in improving the entire procedure of finding interests in helping everyone. Most importantly, Karen needs to help herself to go beyond her stressful life. Socially unacceptable ways cannot help Karen to manage her issues (Jarrett & Vince, 2017). For example, she is avoiding the calls from everyone and she has stopped communicating with others. Society plays a crucial role in the life of a human being, and it is not possible for the people to get success in coping with any situation without having support from friends and close people. However, Karen has already stopped talking to anyone. From that perspective, it is crucial for the entire team and Karen to work in support of each other to manage the frustration and stress by going through the most effective ways to go beyond the stressful life.
Section 3: Intervention
The method is the most important aspect in reaching the objective of this study along with analysing the exploratory data from the case study about Karen to get the answers of research questions. Bringing unconscious material to enhance the function of ego is the most essential aspect in meeting the demands of superego.
- What is the reason for Karen having psychoanalytic issues due to having lack of confidence?
- What type of motivation can help Karen to resolve issues regarding differentiation of her ways to meet the expectations of people?
Exploratory design has been selected to analyse the information regarding Karen to reach the research questions. In this case, Karen requires help from the psychology service providers to work efficiently along with managing the entire business procedure without making any annoying situation (Sandler & Sandler, 2018). It is not possible for Karen to fight her issues without having any motivation in the life of Karen without having support from the service providers regarding identifying the techniques and approaches towards transferring her negative thoughts into the positive ones. For example, it is essential for the patient to go to the psychoanalyst at least once in a week to state the condition of her heart and mind. It is not possible for the service providers to work efficiently without having sufficient support from Karen. For example, Karen is required to provide the details of her present situation.
The theory of individual difference from the perspective of psychoanalytic approach has identified the importance of having different values, habits, self-concept, and psychomotor skills. However, it is different in the case of humanistic psychology that identifies the behaviour of individuals from the perspective of importance of the surroundings to create difference. It has also been identified that the humanistic approach of individual difference theory also identifies the importance of potential in every human being to identify the internal directions to improve the entire procedure of meeting expectations of individuals. It is all about providing personal support for everyone to create a different approach to reach the personal goals along with developing a better understanding regarding working efficiently.
Psychoanalytic therapy and tests through cognitive behaviour therapy will help Karen to get help in making approaches apart from psychoanalytic approaches. Focusing on the emotion is the most important part of life that has been identified in Karen. She is full of emotions that are surrounded with negative and positive simultaneously. It is not possible for Karen to identify the importance of cognition without getting help from the service providers. Hence, the focusing process on emotion can help Karen to work efficiently in the process of helping her friends to find her and communicate with her. She needs to grow confidence through the communication process of the service provider.
Behavioural analytical therapy
Psychological intervention through the analytical process of analysing the state of mind can only help the entire team of service providers and interpreting the dreams and thoughts without making any mistake. For example, psychoanalytic approaches consider dreams as the most critical part of the human mind as the road to unconsciousness. For example, interpretation of dreams can help in interpreting the thoughts in the unconscious mind of Karen. Furthermore, this girl has stopped talking to any other person along with communicating with them. From that aspect, it is crucial to identify the reason for her shyness and low confidence.
It is essential for the service providers to identify the most important reason for Karen to behave weirdly. The people in the field of psychoanalysis can face problems regarding facing their fears and uncertainties. It has also been identified that free association can also help the patient to identify the reason for behaving differently and not talking to anyone. In this case, the entire team can also get help in managing the tights of Karen by helping her to meet the expectations of herself. Self-confidence is the most crucial part of the t therapy that can help her in managing her shyness and interests towards getting better grades. Upgrading the result is one of the most crucial reasons for getting stress in the case of Karen. In such a condition, it becomes easy for Karen to work efficiently and avoid any unexpected situation by going beyond her depression and emotional struggle.
Karen has lost her interest in the world, and she failed to find anything interesting to do on a particular day. From that aspect, self-assertion, self-esteem issues, identity problems, and depression have been identified in this girl. However, it can be resolved by identifying the real reasons for such an issue. It is not possible for the service providing team to help Karen without identifying the problems and reasons for the occurrence of different behaviour in the ways of life in Karen.
Service providers can help in identifying the entire procedure of creating a better approach that can help in creating a better dimension for her. It is only the concern of service providers to engage Karen in interesting conversations along with finding the places she loves along with the processes that can help her in improving her entire life. Exploring avoidance is the only concern regarding ending distress and situations along with the test and feelings.
Karen will get help from the psychoanalytic intervention in the health concern by getting ideas of recurring themes that can help her to behave in a different way. It is not possible for the service provider team to help the entire team to analyse the difficulties regarding psychology without having past experience to live efficiently in the life of Karen. In this case, Karen can get help from the service providers and herself by exploring the past experiences from a newer perspective. Therefore, following figure is presenting the personality of Karen from personality test:
Figure 1: Personality test of Karen
(Source: 16personalities.com, 2021)
Interpersonal relation and therapeutic relationship with the service providers always help in treating the issue in managing the relationship with others. It has been identified in the case of Karen that she doesn't like to talk to anyone. In such a condition, the service provider is required to work in a goal-oriented way to provide a highly structured approach towards identifying the fears. Most importantly, free-flow of emotion can only help in working efficiently in the improving process of managing the entire behavioural approach of Karen. Effectiveness of the entire process lies deep in the procedure of identifying the range of conditions and through identifying success rates of the service provider. Review of the long-term psychoanalytic therapies help in going beyond the symptoms regarding anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms. For example, communication is the key in the case of Karen to help her talk with others (Stewart & Kirkham, 2020). It is also essential for Karen to accept the negative things that are happening around her. It becomes easy for the service providers and Karen to become successful in the entire procedure by considering the factors such as traditional psychoanalysis depending on the costs of treatment and potential downside of the treatment. For example, sometimes, people fail to gain success in this therapy even after completing sessions every week for several years. However, it will become easy for both parties to work on reaching the goal of this case by identifying the interests and motivation of the work. It is for the improvement of Karen's life, and it is important for Karen to behave properly and go beyond these issues. ?
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