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Psychology Assignment: Discussion On Fostering Positive Behaviours


Task: Critical analysis of challenging behaviour – approaches of different theorists Description Critical analysis of incident of challenging behaviour, demonstrating critical understanding of different theories and approaches used in the management and promotion of positive behaviours.

Purpose of psychology assignment: To contribute significantly to pre-service teachers planning and classroom practice in managing their classrooms in positive and effective ways.

Assignment Question:
Critical analysis of challenging behaviour – approaches of different theorists (2000 words)

1. Discuss an incident of challenging behaviour. Examples of challenging behaviour include: (choose one of the following incidents)
• Withdrawn behaviours such as shyness, rocking, staring, anxiety, school phobia, truancy, social isolation or hand flapping.
• Disruptive behaviours such as being out-of-seat, calling out in class, tantrums, swearing, screaming or refusing to follow instructions.
• Violent and/or unsafe behaviours such as head banging, kicking, biting, punching, fighting, running away, smashing equipment or furniture/fixtures.
• Inappropriate social behaviours such as inappropriate conversations, stealing, being over-affectionate, inappropriate touching or masturbation.

2. Analyse possible motivation/ contributing factors for the student behaviour such as bullying, cyber-bullying and discrimination.
3. Critique the teacher’s / school’s response analysing ideas/approaches theories informing their approach.
4. Suggest at least two different possible theoretical approaches informed by research evidence. Outline the overall strategies of two different theories/theorists/approaches and suggest, including specific strategies, how these approaches might advise a teacher to address the challenging behaviour.
5. Discuss possible strategies to support that might be best used to address the incident. Include possible adjustments to teaching programs relevant policies such as codes of ethics and conduct and legislative requirements regarding student wellbeing and safety, including strategies for involving students, parents and carers.
6. Evaluate and make recommendations regarding effective ways to prevent and manage the incident and foster positive behaviour.


In the learning environment, all behaviour is the general form of communication. Therefore, it is stated herein psychology assignment that some communication is easy to understand and some can be difficult to predict. As evidenced by Zablotska et al., (2019), children are quick learners and they learn how to get positive, consistent and behave well with others. Therefore, children have frequent feelings of shame, fear and sadness. Such kinds of feelings, as well as experiences, may cause children and young people to behave in difficult-to-understand and difficult-to-live ways. Foster parents must demonstrate kindness, consistency, empathy, and the capacity to set firm and fair boundaries in order to ensure positive behaviour in children and young adults. However, the report would evaluate inappropriate social behaviour and analyze two different possible theoretical approaches and relevant policies.

Evaluate an incident of challenging behaviour
Inappropriate social Behaviours,

As opined by Labhart et al., (2020), inappropriate social behaviours refer to unsocial behaviours where children tend to steal and guardians are generally concerned. Indeed, inappropriate social behaviour performs inappropriate actions to comments about other people's weight, height. According to the research, it is a neuropsychological disorder. In addition, unwanted attention, sexual harassment, pornography are concerning as well as threatening to society. Parents need to provide extra care to their children and require psychological consultation to prevent such mental disorders. Therefore, physical violence and sexual violence disturb students’ mental abilities and built obstacles in front of their career paths. Without permission touching a person on their visible skin with bad intention is defined as sexual harassment. The perpetrator should be punished for their actions under the law. As evidenced by Robinson, White, & Anderson,(2019), while being given tools to express affection, children generally live for hugging and kissing need to be shown good boundaries. Through touch, they can understand affection and the elder can start to talk. However, over-affectionate can damage children’s mental abilities and they are not able to take the right decision at the right time. In addition, inappropriate behaviour is a form of harassment and becomes disruptive and offensive and subject to treatment. Although stealing is extremely frequent among adolescents, it is unknown how many of them suffer from kleptomania. Therefore, kleptomania characterized by a reduced ability to resist recurring desires to take goods that are not required for monetary or personal purposes has received little attention throughout the lifespan, particularly in adolescents who have a proclivity for stealing. According to the researchers, the stealing habits of a large group of public high school pupils(Nath, Padmawati, & Murhandarwati, 2019).

Analyze the contributing factors for students’ behaviour like discrimination, cyber-bullying and bullying
Among school-aged children, bullying is unwanted and aggressive behaviour that includes a perceived and real power imbalance. As per the view of Olweus, Limber, &Breivik,(2019), bullying has the potential to be over time and repeated. Therefore, bullying can be categorized into two types one is repetition and the other is an imbalance of power. According to an imbalance of power bullying, it utilises their power to dominate or damage other’s physical strength that accesses embarrassing information as well as popularity. Indeed, when the same people are involved, power disparities can shift over time and in different settings. In general, bullying behaviours happen more than once and are repeated as well. On the other hand, based on gender identity or expressions students can get a lower grade because of their race, caste or sex. Therefore, in lacking strict laws or regulations discrimination has been placed in the academic or working environments. Moreover, as evidenced by Billingsley and Hurd,(2019), discrimination creates barriers to full participation and people feel disrespected and excluded and unsafe in the environment. Especially in postsecondary education institutions students face challenges due to their colours or genders, according to the research, students aged 18 to 24 of post-secondary institutions have experienced discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. Apart from this, the use of communication technology and information cyber-bullying involves cell phone, instant messaging, email, and defamatory online personal polling websites. As stated by Beckman, Hellström, & von Kobyletzki,(2020), different forms of cyber-bullying include cyberstalking, flaming, and harassment. As per the survey, students belong to middle-class families in levels 7 to 9 involved in cyberbullying. Indeed, it is another form of bullying and can be devastating for their families. It has been evidenced that cyberbullying reflects in low self-esteem, school avoidance, anxiety, school failure, violence and even suicide. However, engaging in bullying students fall at risk and return poor long-term outcomes and they feel frightened, unhappy and lonely as well as miss their primary education.

Informing the approaches of theories
The theory of constructivism

In order to learn the approach constructivism, people construct their own knowledge and opinions by the experiences of the learner. Though experienced, the learner believes in personal construction and is influenced by the prior knowledge of interaction as well as events. According to the theory, a constructive classroom would be balanced where knowledge can be shared among students and teachers, even if they share the authority also. Indeed, the teachers play an important role of guide and facilitator. Therefore, along with small numbers of heterogeneous students, learning is being formed in the constructive classroom features. It deals with several student-centred teaching methods and techniques instead of traditional methods of education. As per the view of Bakar, Mukhtar & Khalid (2019), the principles of constructivism concern education foundation and build new knowledge and experiences. Therefore, learning is the active process where learners are recognized as an empty vessel and gather knowledge from teachers. To establish collaboration constructivists classrooms provide experiences and knowledge with multiple perspectives and alternative solutions. In the learning process, it encourages ownership and voice in student-centred learning and builds awareness in the knowledge construction process.

Psychoanalytic approach
In terms of the psychoanalytic approach, it focuses on the unconscious mind rather than the conscious mind. Based on the foundational ideas psychoanalytic approach is determined by experiences of the previous story that are involved in the unconscious mind. As opined by Arias-Pujol, and Anguera,(2020), by using many different techniques, the approach Psychoanalytic comprises four basic components such as interpretation, technical neutrality, transference analysis and countertransference analysis. The verbal communication between clients and analysts interpretation discusses the hypotheses of clients. Seeing defensive mechanism analysts can help clients and develop motivation in the mechanism. Therefore, unconscious repetition includes transference analysis that refers to systematic analysis that implicates both verbal and nonverbal manifestations. The learners take note of overall communication that helps to lead defensive mechanisms. Along with technical neutrality, the theory emphasises neutral and conflict-free sides and maintains an equal externality imposing value system. Reflecting learners’ own characteristics they can understand themselves and make assumptions. However, analyzing individual interactions individuals understand analysts' attempts and take actions based on their experiences.

Outline two different possible theoretical approaches along with their strategies
Positive Classroom Discipline

As opined by Ramos, and Hughes, (2020) managing misbehaving students in the classroom, positive classroom discipline allows students to adapt and learn behaviours to achieve expectations to make better choices in their adulthood path. According to Fredric H. Jones positive classroom discipline theory includes some fundamental principles like proximity, engaging students, seating arrangement, communication with parents and keeping it positive. Therefore, as per the theory, anything that can disrupt the class that needs to be reduced. The classroom arrangements and body language of students also need to be controlled. The students should adopt academic behaviours such as understanding, cooperation, and positive attitudes towards study. Moreover, positive classroom discipline helps to create students' behaviour and learning styles. Not only students but also teachers should understand the problem behaviour and deliver techniques to deal with the principles. Therefore, appropriate behaviour should be imposed and set the goals at the starting class and teachers need to remain neutral at the conflicts. As per the concept, classroom arrangements provide discipline and positive instruction through reinforcement and creates stability with positive relations with students. Therefore, the model has the strength of limited discipline problems, better relationships and participation. However, it takes extra time and transitioning from one class to another.

Circle of Courage
The model of positive youth development, the circle of courage, was developed by Martin Brokenleg and Steve Van Bockern. As opined by Andrews et al., (2019), the theory is based on four universal growth needs of all children that are generosity, mastery, independence, and belonging. Without using harsh coercive controls anthropologists have long known that Native Americans reared respectful and courageous children. To create a reclaiming environment the teacher education program strives to exemplify the four core values. According to belonging value, the concept of Circle of Courage recognizes the students' need in caring adults to commence the learning process and incorporate primary social values. The teachers and candidates need to develop academic, social and intellectual competence in terms of mastery. Both students and teachers become responsible as well as capable citizens. To improve positive autonomy and interdependence, the independence component, including a circle of courage model, secure the guidance of caring youths and realize that they have some power all over their world. The fourth value of Circle of Courage advocates a positive learning environment that supports corporate in making academic and socially meaningful experiences. However, positive contributions reflect the pre-eminent value of generosity and generate individual proof of worthiness. To address the incident discuss possible strategies including relevant policies like legislative requirements, codes of ethics and conducts regarding students well beings.

Code of ethics
In the learning procedures, teachers help students in the online classroom. Educators help students in learning subjects such as maths, sciences. As opined by Gustafsson et al., (2021), teachers and students both follow a professional code of ethics and set a positive example. Students receive uncompromising, honest and fair education in terms of the code of ethics. Moreover, it includes primary education responsibilities to the students and determines the role of the student’s life. In the classroom ethical, integrity and impartiality behaviour have been demonstrated by the educators. Even in workplaces, positive behaviour includes a code of ethics and conduct with co-workers’ and parents whether it is virtual or in-person behaviours. Therefore, the code of ethics promotes healthy relationships and builds strong bonding among students, teachers or educators. It also emphasises commitment, safety and acceptance by avoiding offensive conduct. However, perseverance, respect, patience, honesty and unity sum of in the code of ethics and establish a sense of respect among students.

Wellbeing and safety
As opined by King et al., (2019), the state of wellbeing is referred to as mental health where people can meet learning potential and be connected to the social community as well as friends. In school, the teaching programs promote skills development for the students to increase their mental abilities. According to the survey, the age group of 14 to 25 years are facing struggles in their mental illness and disorders that make obstacles in their career paths. Therefore, wellbeing and safety programmes ensure work efficiency and develop leadership skills to establish positive relationships. Moreover, it helps students to handle challenges and find out solutions in a constructive way. However, professional learning programmes are playing a vital role to promote resilience and respectful relationships to boost confidence levels.

Regarding effective ways to evaluate and make recommendations to prevent and manage the incidents and foster positive behaviour.
Positive interventions support effective strategies in students’ behaviours such that they build a good human beings as well as responsible citizens(Wild et al., 2020). Routines, silent signals, proximity and positive paraphrasing help to promote positive behaviours within classrooms. Therefore, take a break should be required to refresh their mind and it helps to remove monotony and enhance productivity. In the above analyse, learners define as empty glass where they get information from educators. Therefore, teachers should arrange educational programs to enhance their positive experiences and they get matured for their future careers.

However, it can be concluded that educations programs need to impose to upgrade their skills for better opportunities. Hence, the programs also demonstrate cultural programs to refresh their mind to acquire knowledge.

Andrews, E. J., Staples, K., Reed, M. G., Carriere, R., MacColl, I., McKay-Carriere, L., ... & Steelman, T. A. (2019). Insights for building community resilience from prioritizing youth in environmental change research. Sustainability, 11(18), 4916.

Arias-Pujol, E., & Anguera, M. T. (2020). A mixed methods framework for psychoanalytic group therapy: from qualitative records to a quantitative approach using T-pattern, lag sequential and polar coordinate analyses. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1922.
Bakar, M. A., Mukhtar, M., & Khalid, F. (2019). The development of a visual output approach for programming via the application of cognitive load theory and constructivism. Development, 10(11), 305-312.
Beckman, L., Hellström, L., & von Kobyletzki, L. (2020). Cyber bullying among children with neurodevelopmental disorders: A systematic review. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 61(1), 54-67.
Billingsley, J. T., & Hurd, N. M. (2019). Discrimination, mental health and academic performance among underrepresented college students: the role of extracurricular activities at predominantly white institutions. Social Psychology of Education, 22(2), 421-446. Gustafsson, B., Ryden, L., Tibell, G., & Wallensteen, P. (2021). The Uppsala code of ethics for scientists. In Peter Wallensteen: A Pioneer in Making Peace Researchable (pp. 105-112). Springer, Cham.
King, T. J., Abernethy, K., Brumby, S., Hatherell, T., Kilpatrick, S., Munksgaard, K., & Turner, R. (2019). Sustainable fishing families: Developing industry human capital through health, wellbeing, safety and resilience.
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Nath, T. C., Padmawati, R. S., & Murhandarwati, E. H. (2019). Barriers and gaps in utilization and coverage of mass drug administration program against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Bangladesh: An implementation research. Journal of infection and public health, 12(2), 205-212.
Olweus, D., Limber, S. P., & Breivik, K. (2019). Addressing specific forms of bullying: A large-scale evaluation of the Olweus bullying prevention program. International Journal of Bullying Prevention, 1(1), 70-84.
Ramos, G., & Hughes, T. (2020). Could More Holistic Policy Addressing Classroom Discipline Help Mitigate Teacher Attrition. eJEP: eJournal of Education Policy, 21(1), n1.
Robinson, S., White, A., & Anderson, E. (2019). Privileging the bromance: A critical appraisal of romantic and bromantic relationships. Men and Masculinities, 22(5), 850-871.
Wild, J., Greenberg, N., Moulds, M. L., Sharp, M. L., Fear, N., Harvey, S., ... & Bryant, R. A. (2020). Pre-incident training to build resilience in first responders: recommendations on what to and what not to do. Psychiatry, 83(2), 128-142. Zablotska, I. B., Vaccher, S. J., Bloch, M., Carr, A., Foster, R., Grulich, A. E., ... & Templeton, D. (2019). High adherence to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and no HIV seroconversions despite high levels of risk behaviour and STIs: the Australian demonstration study PrELUDE. AIDS and Behavior, 23(7), 1780-1789.


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