Lean project management assignment on FIFA World Cup
You have been given the task to organise the FIFA 2018 World Cup football tournament (https://www.fifa.com/worldcup).
(For those not familiar with football, you may change the event to the recently concluded 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games: https://gc2018.com/).
Task: As the project manager in charge of delivering such as an important world sporting event:
- Identify and elaborate the following terms with regards to the event.
- Voice of the Customer (VOC
- Critical to Customer Requirements (CCR
- Critical to Quality parameters (CTQ)
- In what ways would you have implemented lean project management for this event?
- Identify and elaborate processes from PMBOK, PRINCE2, Organisational Project Management, Agile Practices and Lean Six Sigma (DMAIC Methodology) that could support your lean project implementation.
This project management assignment will investigate FIFA. The FIFA World Cup is one of the most renowned international football competitions. Different international football groups made with expert football players belong from different countries take participation in this sporting event. All the international groups form a governing body of football, known as FIFA. After initiation in 1930, the football competition takes place every four years. Based on the popularity of this event, it can be stated that this is one of the most popular, biggest and prestigious sporting tournament in the sports world (Conforto et al. 2014). Thus, incorporation of lean thinking and lean construction in the FIFA project management assignment is significant for acquiring success.
Through assuming the importance of project management for FIFA, the registered project manager needs to focus on the essential elements required for managing the events to deliver proper, practical, and adequate services. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight several aspects related to FIFA, such as Voice of Customers, requirements of customers and service quality parameters. The current project management assignment sheds light on the elements as mentioned earlier through aligning with it with different lean project management parameters and different other processes such as PMBOK, PRINCE2, Lean Six Sigma, and Project Management Agile Practices, which can be considered as supporting formats of the lean project management.
Organization of FIFA 2018 Event
In order to achieve the remarkable success as well as surpassing the progress until the occurrence of the last event, a detailed and explained level of project management system is necessary for organizing all of the influencing parameters. At present, various types of event management process are becoming significant in the current societal prospect. Therefore, the event's success rate can be determined and influenced by the trivial details of the projects. Among all related aspects, hosting the events within a scheduled timeline is one of the crucial goals of sports event management. In this case, due to the extreme popularity of FIFA, it is necessary to host this sports event with adequate and skilled project managers, having the skill of last-minute decision-making.
In the current year, the governing members of FIFA focus on the improvement of the entire event for obtaining more success compared to the previous year. For achieving this, it is necessary to create and maintain such environments, in which the players can understand their values and provide their best efforts during their performances. Besides this, the FIFA event manager needs to understand the critical factors relevant to the event, by which the best performance can be delivered to the millions of audiences. Synchronisation, as well as harmonisation, is also necessary for this project array for obtaining a satisfactory experience level. Due to being the most significant sporting event in the world, a number of other activities are also inter-linked with this project, such as marketing events, advertisement projects, the process of security maintenance, waste management process. Proper strategies and coordinating inventions are required for managing all the activities mentioned above (Müller and Gaffney, 2018).
According to the concept of the continuous improvement process, it can be stated that the application of lean project management is critical and appropriate for managing such types of sports events like FIFA. The process of lean project management includes long-term strategic practices, for accomplishing the incremental modifications within the existing workflow, for achieving efficient and improved quality services. A fundamental duty of the FIFA project manager is to allocate the activities and budgets according to the requirements of the events (Tennent & Gillett, 2016). For delivering the best outputs, it is required to continue the improvement process in advertising and marketing without compromising the budget and quality of the event.
Voice of Customer
The comprehensive and profound study of gathering the aversion, expectations and preference of the consumers is referred to the concept of Voice of Customer. It is considered an effective tool for market research, which aids in catering to the needs and expectations of the customers. Voice of Customer is managed is an appropriate organizational structure and prioritized in accordance to the comparative importance and satisfaction (Action et al., 2016). In this context, since FIFA involves a number of business and associations as well as large number of viewers, it is necessary for them to understand the needs and satisfaction level of the consumers, which cannot be compromised at any point. Here, the Kano’s model has been taken under consideration in order to identify and understand the current requirements of the consumers along with their future expectations (Cooper and Dreher, 2010).
Figure1: Kano Model
(Source: Kanomodel, 2016)
In context to the case study of FIFA, it needs to provide its customers with high quality experience and carry out a number of programs in context to the voice of customers in order to understand and respond to the needs and demand of the customers. In order to do so, the organization can come up with different techniques such as interviews, surveys, tic-toe sessions, and so forth; thus, being able to identify the current requirements and future expectations of the customers and accordingly make changes in their plans to improve their productivity.
Critical to Customer Requirement
Requirements of the customers are always associated with the product or services, expenses or cost, delivery of the products, security, integrity and corporate responsibility (Jin, Ji & Gu, 2016). It is essential to identify the requirements of the customers who will be attending the FIFA World Cup 2018 that is to be held soon. It is important for the team to incorporate strategies and design effective planning that suits the demands and the requirements of the customers. The first significant requirement that has been identified is that customers prefer a safe and a secured environment in the stadium. Customers prefer to watch the match without any trouble or chaos. Due to the rise in terrorism and political turmoil, people always stay in trepidation. Thus, they prefer a safe environment that provides them with a secured ambience. In order to provide with a safe and a secured environment, there will be security guards and cops all around the stadium who will be for 24 hours surveillance.
The second most important requirement identified is that customers prefer healthy, safe and quality food. Added to this, refreshing drinks must be served at regular intervals so that their energy is revitalized. To meet this requirement of the customers, there must be food stalls offering myriad of food items for 24 hours. It must be noted that the food stalls do not charge lump sum amount from the customers. Advanced booking system is another essential requirement of the customers that have been identified. As FIFA World Cup is popular, there will be a constant rush. There must be an effective public relations team or marketing team to promote all the events of the tournament and keep the customers updated on a regular basis. This project management assignment will assist customers to know the schedule of the game, the discounted prices and other activities. Lastly, the stadium must be kept clean and bins must be provided so that customers can throw all the litters and the garbage into it.
Critical to Quality Parameters (CTQ)
Critical to Quality Parameters are referred as the internal quality aspects that are related with the needs and wants of the customers. The concept of CTQ is different from CTC. While CTC identifies the requirements of the customers, CTQs are the vital factors that improves the quality of the service that are delivered to the customers (Hylton, 2017). Thus, CTQs are essential components to deliver CTCs.
A data driven methodology and a structured data that helps the customers to recognize their needs and wants, defines the processes, satisfies the needs and involves the employees to ascertain execution is known as Six-Sigma (Raza et al., 2018) The aim of this project management assignment is to develop the schemes and the processes involved in the development of the event. Thus, it will use the define, measure, analyze, design verify (DMADV) methodology. The steps that are involves in the DMADV methodology will emphasize on the CQPs from the VOC.
Figure 2: DMADV model
(Source: Pendokhare & Quazi, 2015).
The aim of the project is to understand the significant issues. FIFA World Cup 2018 will be organized soon. After the voice of the customers is analyzed, it is clear that the customers want a safe and a secured environment, cleanliness, provision of food, effective marketing strategies and advanced booking.
The second step is to identify the measures that help in the assessment of quality. The quality of parameters includes the total number of cops and security staffs, fire safety arrangements, on –stop customer service and janitor staffs. The parameters include the total number of food stalls, change in the price of the food compared to the local retailers, deciding on the total number of days for advertising before the commencement of the event, media coverage of the events and the total number of portals that are established for the online advanced booking.
The third step determines whether any measure needs to be undertaken to ensure the parameters. Control measures must be implemented to strengthen the quality perception of the customers. In this prospect, the control parameters combine the minimum quantifiable value for each of the measure that has been described in the earlier stage. The aim of the lower limit will determine the minimum acceptable standards to meet the needs of the customers.
The fourth step includes the optimization of methods. The fire safety arrangements and the number of security staffs will address issue like accidents. The janitors will help the event organizers to ensure that there are no litters or the wastes around the stadium. The availability of the food items at an appropriate price will determine the capability of the event to meet the needs of the customers. The lower limit acts as a control measure and the upper limit assures that there is no deficiency of resources and that it is available under the constraint of the defined budget (Pyzdek & Keller, 2014).
Project methodology for the marketing and advertising of FIFA 2018 World Cup
The advertising and marketing features of FIFA 2018 World Cup comprises of a number of factors such as, understanding the media being availed, consumer needs, expectation concerning the matches and so forth. Other than this, the project manager of the organizations needs to identify the marketing planning requirements and the key aspects that require being included in the initiation process, subsequent to which the planning and execution section is initiated. Hence, the classification of the different phases can be obtained by proven project management concepts and methodologies.
In this context, the PMBOK project management guide has been taken under consideration, as it is considered to posses some of the best management practices. The guide comprises of five basic processes namely, “initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling and closing” (Kerzner and Kerzner, 2017).
Figure 3: PMBOK project management guide
(Source: Larson and Gray, 2015)
Here, the knowledge section is referred to the project amalgamation management, which emphasizes upon the creation of project charter. The project scope management that comprises of requirement, scope WBS (work breakdown structure) and further controls the different aspects of the project is considered the most significant part of project management in context the above-mentioned guide. Furthermore, the project management expense comprises of determining the expense intricately depending upon the risks and activities (Project Management Institute, 2018). In addition, the human resource management of the project comprises of comprehending and building the team for the concerned project; whereas, the communication management department is apprehensive of establishing the communication code of behavior throughout the different stakeholders. Besides, the project procurement management is apprehensive of the identification of the warehousing, suppliers and executing timeline of the critical resources (Rose, 2013).
On contrary, the OPM (organizational project management) refers to a strategic management framework comprises of different elements of knowledge, processes and talent in order to produce better and sustainable results constantly (Turner, 2014). However, it is witnessed to be more appropriate for organizational projects, wherein the projects are regarded as the main process of developing competitive advantage in the market. Therefore, OPM is considered s successful business approach, which is apprehensive of fitting abilities of the organization along with the needs of the project. This approach can further be adopted by FIFA in order to ensure better and successful profits and revenues in comparison to the previous hosted World Cup in the year 2014.
Five main process of Initiation, Planning, Execution, Monitor and control, and Closure
In the initiation process, the project manger defines the work pieces related to a completely new project or the phase of a project, where the approval from the authority is also acquired to proceed with the project activities. In the planning stage, the project objectives and scope of the works are defined, encompassing all the work related to task planning and scheduling. In the execution stage the activities are carried out in real time, associated with completion of the deliverables of the project. Next comes the part where the output of the project tasks is monitored and controlled for better or required output.
This is an upgraded project management technique where the 4 stages of PMBOK are specifically divided into 7 main processes, namely Directing a Project, Starting a project, Initiating a project, Managing stage Boundaries, Controlling a stage, Managing product delivery, Closing a project and Planning.
The first process is the pre-project process in which the pre-requisites of the project, along with the tasks that initiate the project are put in place. In the stage control process, the monitoring and controlling objectives of project manager is described that ensure proper conduction of the project activities and provision to deal with unexpected events. The project closure process is conducted for confirming the extent to which the Project objectives have been fulfilled and client satisfaction has been delivered, obtaining formal acceptance regarding project deliverables and making recommendations for follow up activities. Rather this process comprises of the lessons learned and end Project project management assignment.
This practice comprises of the four main processes, which are Object, Process, Essence and Affiliation.
This practice illustrates that process is an entity, representing behavior patterns or mental existence. This process is a complex multidisciplinary systems paradigm, incorporating specification and communication systems across multiple domains, dealing with the complexities at any levels.
The agile method is broken into small incremental build processes, involving iteration of processes across functional teams working on Planning, Requirement Analysis, Design, Coding, Unit testing and Acceptance
The agile methodology requires high level of co-operation among the functional teams to deal with the processes or activities being conducted in parallel, where high motivational levels are required and pair programming. The demo products and builds are the best forms of communication with the customers for understanding the requirements of the customers, rather just depending on documentation, to ensure more customer-oriented product deliveries. Due to its ability to handle multi-tasking and pair programming, the Agile methodology can respond quickly to the changing preferences and incessant development.
Lean Six Sigma
Six sigma comprises of DMAIC six process, abbreviation for the processes of Define, measure, Analyze, Improve and Control
It is rather a quality improvement process, in which the define process objectifies the summary of the project plan, specifying about the problems, process improvement goals and project scope, besides the customer identification and project requirement analysis. The define part input is generated from VOC, VOB and/ or VOP. The estimated project benefits are also defined in this process. Two of the most commonly used measure process techniques are Process sigma and Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO). The main tools of this process are brainstorming, prototyping, Pugh matrix, simulation, etc. The final process is the control stage, where the post implementation results or outcomes are being evaluated and changes are incorporated into the business project or practices, requiring correction or alteration.
(Source: Rebaiaia& Vieira, 2014; Turner, 2014; Larson and Gray, 2015; Project Management Institute, 2018)
Best project methodology implementation for marketing of FIFA 2018
The drawback of the OPM and Agile Methodology for project management for project management is that they are only used for the specific projects of the organization especially during the product development of software (Rebaiaia& Vieira, 2014). Additionally, it is a progressive development of a product. The benefit of PMBOK method is that it can be applied for any scale of a project. PRINCE 2 on the other hand is project based and cost- effective. FIFA World Cup 2018 will use PRINCE2 methodology as it is dependent on the intermediate task like marketing of FIFA world Cup will attract fans to arrive in Russia. This will enhance the tourist services of Moscow providing security to the visitors. Thus, the event is inter-dependent on the project. To achieve effective marketing strategies, a continuous and improvement process is required along with the techniques of DMAIC and PMI. The five stages of PMI will be the same, there must be improvements to meet the changing trends of the target market.
Therefore, it can be easily assumed that managing the entire event within a limited span of 1 month is a critical task. Evidence suggests that satisfaction of the on-field and off-field audiences are based on the contribution of the FIFA project management team. In order to achieve the goals related with customer satisfaction, the FIFA management team needs to focus on the voice of customers including security, safety, cleanliness and food accessibility. The critical quality of the event is dependent on a number of quantifiable as well as measurable parameters. However, the evaluation of various project management processes agile, PRINCE2 and OPM methods, represent that the lean project management processes are less effective for managing the FIFA event. Therefore, according to the complex scale and nature of FIFA event, it can be deduced that PMBOK methodology which will be explored on this project management assignment to determine suitable for managing the entire event with successful improvement process. ?
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