Project quality management assignment: Discussion on PM Processes
Task: The project quality management assignment is based on the following tasks:
- Carry out a literature study on the available methods for assessment and evaluation of project management practices worldwide. Present the results in a maximum of 500 words.
- Project management processes are categorised into five (5) process groups of: Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring/controlling, and Closing. An audit process should look at all process groups in a project. You are required to look at only the first three.
Suppose you are working as a project management expert in an organisation that delivers projects. You have been tasked to carry out an audit of the project management processes and practice in yourorganisation.
This involves, in the first instance, developing a checklist for each of the three process groups (and its breakdown of subprocesses) to be used for an audit that you are required to develop and conduct on the project management practice(s) in yourcompany. Non-conformance presents issues for the successful delivery of a project. Define Non-conformance and develop a template for non-conformancereporting.
- Identify and briefly introduce a sample project. You may use the project presented in your submission for Assessment1. Suppose the selected project is inprogress.
You are required to review the Monitoring/controlling processes and to audit the relevant project management processes in this group. Present the completedaudit. Identify at least one non-conformance and complete a non-conformance report using the template developed in the previousstep. Prepare a maximum one-page long audit report. The report could have one or two appendices.
- Refer to PMBoK sixth edition (PMI 2017) for a list of the project management knowledge areas. Commence by defining what are Quality Metrics; choose three authorative sources and remember to cite references
Select two Project knowledge areas other than time, cost, and quality. Develop five metrics and the associated acceptance criteria for each knowledge area for assessment of the project management process in that area.
Step 1: Literature Study
There are several types of project management and evaluation that is considered throughout the world. Every project is unique in its way, and thus the success criteria depend on the methods that are used for the evaluation and assessment method of a particular project. There are specific criteria for the success of any project. Specific success criteria is a method that is used by the project managers to determine the tasks. A project is determined with either complexity or simplicity . Both the terminologies are related to the client, tools, timeline and the project itself. The individuals that are working for the project is also essential. These factors are listed, and then it can be evaluated whether a project is doable or not.
The flexibility or the rigidity is also significant for the project’s success. If a project is carried out in an appetite environment, the Agile methodology can be applied in these circumstances as the workforce is ready for change and evolution. The rigidity of within a workplace in respect to requirements, budget and timeline the Waterfall approach is suitable. The risks and constraints are considered according to the flexibility of the workforce . The hybrid methodology can be used according to the nature of the project for the success of an organization. The needs of the stakeholders or the clients are also needed to be considered, and a list is made regarding their demands. The project objectives and goals are also maintained in the organization to guide the staffs that are working on the project. The right methods give accurate results as the objectives are met accurately . A waterfall is a correct approach if the goals of the company and the project manager are to focus on a large target. However, this method is challenging in the aspects of projects, as it is a complicated process. The targets are larger than needed and demands-resources in a massive amount to fulfil the assignment.
Scrum is another methodology in project management for the improvement of delivery by determining the process and principles. It is one of the most used methodologies as its framework is simple and convenient. The aim of Scrum is to maintain the progress of speed development, teamwork and communication among the employees. Complex products are maintained with this approach, and its framework manages the ongoing development.
The methodology of Kanban is focused on strict process and principles for efficiency development. Kanban and Scrum are almost similar to each other. Self-managing team and collaboration is the central aspect of Kanban. It is a process to increase the focus of the workforce . The most restorative practices are an evaluation of improvement opportunities and making the policy process explicit. The work of the project gets fast, and improvement of quality is maintained with this method . The measurement of Lead Time is focused on Kanban. Optimization of time is done with this process, and Kanban evaluates limited progress. This method is suitable for the works in which there is a need for steady output such as support, production or maintenance.
Step 2: Template development
An audit of the project management processes and practice
An audit of a project is the continuous process which mainly starts in an implementation stage of the proposed project and continue till the end of this project. It has the purpose to notify the successful criteria in case of the project including help to assures that a particular project is staying efficient and follow all the documented standards requirements and its quality. The procedure of audit assists to finish difference projects on budget and time and as per the requirements of the user.
Figure 1: project audit reviews
Project management audit checklist
Here is the checklist of this proposed project audit method
Step 1: successful criteria improvement
- Carry on the interactions with all the sponsor of this project work and managers of the project, which mainly helps to agree and determine the success criteria of the project.
- Need to be assure that the standards which are set in a line with the necessity of the business.
- Create a chart for enlisting all the required involves questions about the specifications of success.
- Need to share this chart to all the respective participants of the project, along with all the enlisted stakeholders who are the major part of this particular project.
- Need to hire anaccountant for taking the interviews of the team
- Need to store all the reactions from all the particular group.
Step 2: analyzation
- Need to accomplish particularly all the unit research interactions with all the respected stakeholders of the particular project work.
- Need to identify and discuss all the issues with all stakeholders who can arise in future along with the current and past one.
- Need to take an interview with all the external stakeholders about the same point.
- Need to develop a report which will involve all the general issues of the project.
- Need to audit each issue to discover the strength and the collision on this project.
Step 3: transmission
- Need to store all the required records which are created in the time of the meeting and interactions.
- Need to collect all the information which mainly taken from the examinations.
- Need to merge all the information from the documentation of this project.
- Need to identify all the opportunities.
- Need to make an audit report of the project.
- Need to add recommendations in the report.
It is very much normal for a project that there can be few non-conformances arise on that particular project work. However, there are various motivated process plus forms in the place to perform the pre-empt non-conformances with preventing the defects and issues. It is very much unavoidable, which make several slip by the crazing.
For these entire non-conformances, the project quality forms have been created along with the process and documents. In addition to that, the most important and muscular tools that an organization or a team has it's their dumping is the NCR. An NCR or the non-conformance report documentation with all the specifications of the identified non-conformance report in the criteria procedure analysis or audit of the quality. All these non-conformance mainly include the process, product and procedure which fall outer side of this project and this particular record wants to gives all the work parties with the concise definition with unambiguous of this issue so that the needed proper suitable actions should be initiated.
Description of non-conformance:
Figure 2: NCR template
Step 3: Demonstration
Project title: Implementation of the Kanban System by the Toyota corporation.
Description: Kanban is a file control scheme that was designed by Taiichi Ohno, the industrial engineer at Toyota. This system is created for maintaining clarity for both the suppliers and the consumers of the company to minimize the excess inventory issues that are faced by the management during the production time. Toyota applied the theory to implement in its Just-in-Time (JIT) system, which assists align raw substance orders from the suppliers straight with the composition records.
Toyota's welding line extended efficiency with the company earned is just sufficient inventories on the ability to satisfy client bookings as they were being created. This developed project completely satisfies the quality management as it maintains all the major parameters of quality management. This implemented project improves the inventory system of the Toyota corporation by implementing the Kanban prototype in its existing system manufacture. Kanban works as an efficient tool to maintain running a composition system as a mass, and an attractive way to encourage development. Karban is an active approach to achieve the Just-in-Time method. Karban is also famed as the "Toyota nameplate system".
The steps in monitoring or controlling the quality management: The required steps are mentioned below
Verify Scope and Control Scope: Verify scope usually occurs after performing quality control. When the project is ready for the delivery, it is allowed from the quality check and it will proceed to the verify scope platform. The customer will rectify the scope, whether the deliverable performs the entire requirement or not, and if it is accurate at that period, the product will be transferable to the consumer site. And unfortunately, if the product is not accurate, then again, the project requires revisiting the composition stage. the management needs to control the range throughout the entire project life cycle. This process does not seem like only when the project is ready to deliver during that moment the management starts to check the product; it is a full-time method.
Control the costing and schedule: Throughout the Earned Value Management or EVM, the company needs to control the costing and the schedule for the project. management should know the value of their Cost Performance Index and Schedule Performance Index, and based on the outcome of this CPI and SPI, the company monitoring and controlling their projects. If the CPI is in a positive range or higher than 1, the company is in good project costing contracted, and if the SPI is in positive range or higher than 1, the company is in a good schedule
Performing Quality Control: Before releasing the product to the client, management needs to check it twice. The crosse-checking is required to confirm that the delivered product satisfies all quality factors requested by the consumers or not. For fulfillment of this purpose, the company can take the guidance of several quality tools or quality methods, like Histograms, Control Chart, Pareto Chart, Root Cause Analysis, and more.
Report the Performance: During the time of managing a long project with various estimates of stakeholders, the management needs to take the updation of the project state to each qualified stakeholder. Mainly the company needs to modernize the project growth report like – what is the current progression of the project? What will be the reasoning for the project? Control the Risk management: Risk management can be developed anytime and from anywhere in a particular project. The management just does not check the possible risk only during the project controlling and monitoring state. Risk management needs to be marked just after the design has been originated. It is also a full-time activity for management.
Administer Acquirement: If the management is subcontracting any method to any other party, the company needs to observe its appearance also in a well-appropriate manner. Based on the production of that other party, the project outcome could be determined. So, the company doesn't take it easy. It is mainly the project manager's responsibility for monitoring and controlling the performance of the subcontractors too.
The non-conformance report:
1. Non-Conformance Report
Step 4: Quality Metrics
In project management, quality metrics are essential in order to achieve effective results from a project. It can be defined as the measurement of all the subordinates of this particular project or product. The main aim of it is to identify the subordinates which are measured by the managers of this project. This measurement that can be originated in this specific technique of project management is a genuine result. Moreover, quality metrics also sets a tolerance value, which defines the variations that are allowable on the metric. The quality metric is used for measuring the cost of the deliverable to define the change of percentage in the budget . The variations of the quality metrics includes several things like on-time arrangements, defective frequency, and failure ratio as well as cost control.
Furthermore, metrics are used in a nutshell to guide the managers of the project. Additionally, managers can take an appropriate decision about the project, which they are handling. Various types of metrics are used on the basis of methodologies and technologies that are used by projects. It defines that a proper image of the project or product can be provided with the use of the correct metric. Thus, quality metrics are determined as the measurements of performance and value of processes along with services and products.
Project Knowledge Areas
There are ten project knowledge areas which are part of project management. These knowledge areas can be part of any of the process groups. Each of these knowledge areas is essential for effectively manage a project. The ten project information sections are management of integrations, various scope, timing, costing, quality measurement, human resource quantity, communication, risk management, procurement and lastly stakeholders . Among the ten project knowledge areas, two of them are discussed in this part, along with five metrics and acceptance criteria. It will help in understanding and assessing project management. The two chosen knowledge areas for this project are human resource and communication, which are discussed in details.
Human Resource Knowledge Area
There are certain metrics of human resources and communication in project management. The human resource is considered the most valuable resource of the project, as, with the best team, a manager is able to finish a project efficiently. Each employee is assignedcertain roles, and according to theirpositions, they have some requirements to fulfil.The human resourceisassignedtasksaccording to the way theyfitin a project, so that they are satisfied and work towards the goal . However to make sure theirperformance is up to themark, tracking their performance at regular intervals isnecessary, andbased onthat they should be rewarded . After a project plan is made, and job description is determined, there is a need to form a project team and fill the positions with appropriate employees. In this knowledge areas, the position could be filled in either of the three ways . The management can choose among the existing employees who fit the purpose, or start hiring new employees, while a combination of the bother can also be used. After the selection process is over, the chosen human resources should be provided with proper training to develop their skills . It would make the employees viable for completing the tasks of the project.During the process of the project, it is necessary to monitor the progress of each employeeformaintaining their productivity level. Along with that, the manager of the project is responsible for mitigatinginternal conflicts for smooth continuationofthe project.
Human Resource Metrics
- Human resources metrics are used by project managers to assess employee performance and productivity. Five metrics are chosen here to understand the contribution of the employees towards a project.
- The first is the profit per employee, which is calculated by dividing the total profits of the project by the number of employees appointed. While increased number of employees can bring higher revenues, but the cost behind their salary would also increase, reducing the overall profit.
- Another metric is the rate of job satisfaction, which is determined by dividing the number of employees who are satisfied by the total number of employees in the project. The highly satisfied they are, the more there is employee engagement.
- The absenteeism is another metric, found by dividing workdays missed by total scheduled workdays, which determines the employees’wellbeing in all aspect.
- Revenue per employee is another metric, which is measured by dividing total revenue by the total number of employee. The employee hiring is thought as successful when each of the employees contributes to the project by bringing in lot more than the cost used for hiring them.
- Innovation is considered another metric, determined by dividing the total number of successful ideas related to the project by total number of suggestions given. This helps better manage the internal processes regarding the project.
Communication Management Knowledge Area
The second project knowledge area chosen is the communication management as it consists of a project’s each of the aspects. With better communication, the team members along with the stakeholders are kept updated at any point of time. Due to this reason it is considered one of the critical steps. The communication includes information about what is needed by which groupand at what time . Moreover, during occurrence of issues, communication is needed to cope with the changes. During the execution phase communication should be managedeffectively so that project runs smoothlyaccordingto the plan . At regular intervals the effectiveness of the employees must be evaluated and reviewed, so that communication can help in adjusting according to the needs.
- Employee turnover is the first communication metric because, in the projects with better communication, turnover is low.
- The speed of crisis communication metric is measured based on howquick the team respond to different situations.
- The employeeadvocacy metric is measured by how often employees share about the project and make other familiar.
- Knowing the peak time of intranet use by staffs helps in making the announcements effectivelyreach each of the employees in time.
- Employee feedback and awareness metric determined how well the employees are knowledgeable about the changes happening within the project.
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