Impact Of Biomedical Model Of Health
Task: Provide an elaborate note on the influence of the biomedical model on the health of human beings.
It was in the later years of the 1850s that the concept of the biomedical model of health was derived in the discipline of medicine. Since then this concept has proved to be a major concept in the analysis of disease. The basic ideology of the biomedical is actually classified into three divisions. To ascertain that a person is devoid of any disease, and is holding a normal biological condition, then the medical practitioner has to state the freedom of the patient from any sort of defect, disease, and pain. The mode of treatment or medication is not covered under the area of the biomedical model and hence it is quite different from the biopsychological model. No factors of psychological nature like the influence of the social elements, and external factors and the psychological condition are covered under this category since the biomedical model only focuses on the biological factors.
Both the models in Biomedical and cultural field makes an exclusive impact over the decisions of the medical practitioner and thus consequentially controls the choice made in the model of health care. It should also be noted that the biological model of health or illness has turned out to be a partial success in describing various aspects of diseases, although it had dominated the discipline of academics in medicine. The inefficiency of the biomedical model roots from the adaption of three different hypotheses, which are: - the assumption that all sorts of diseases generate from the same course, symptoms could only generate from disease and the concept that by only removing the disease the person would get total health. In the later researches, it was being observed that these assumptions are utterly wrong. The UNO's subsidiary body like the World Health Organization had marked down a new biomedical model of health that satisfies the international parameters. This would provide a better and more independent elucidation of pathology.
Significance of applying the biological model of health
The health and biological well being of a society totally rely on the biological model of health adopted, the selection of which bears immense consequence on the future of the society. Let us take a similar instance from the condition of soldiers in the occurrence of the first world war. Many of the soldiers had reported high occurrences of stress and mental disturbances. The higher officials had put this issue aside and tagged the problem as an insignificant matter and only an effort of wastage in time. In the current scenario, the same symptoms are considered to be a matter of high significance and if the matter gets worse, the victims are entitled to high compensations by the government. The patients are still not possessing an open attitude towards accepting their mental illness since there still exists a prejudice against them in society. The inability to explain their own mental problem has also turned out to be a very significant barrier in the treatment of mental illness.
Modern biomedical models of health
Although the biomedical modes of health hold great significance in the field of social health, very little researches or explorations are done in the field. It was by the biomedical models derived from the Virchow’s conclusion in the later years of the 20th century that the major conception that around all the diseases in the human body are caused due to the abnormalities at the cellular level. Today, the concept of the biomedical model of health is very relevant for the analysis of the diseases which could be further ascertained by the dint of biological findings.
By implementing the ideology of reductionism, the concept of the biomedical model of health could be represented as the integration of various sets of beliefs. These representations could be detailed as below: -
- The non-existence of disease is equivalent to the prevalence of healthy life.
- The existence of disease or pathogens in a human body obviously causes the way for symptoms at some stage of the disease, additionally providing that no other factors would ever impact the course of the disease.
- It is the abnormality at the cellular level which would lead to the development of disease in the human disease. The affected tissue would be in accordance with the tissues indulged in the affected organs.
- The patient could receive only the partial impact of the provided treatment, even if he totally cooperates with the mode of treatment.
- The existence of illness is not the consequence of the patient’s action and hence could not be held liable for his own biological condition.
- The disease or abnormalities in the psychological aspect of a person should be categorized separately from the abnormalities in the biological condition of the person.
As per the nature and specialties of the occupation practiced by the individual, the affected diseases could be classified into various sections. The primary cause of the problem is given prominence in the social biomedical model of health and hence the wholistic approach is abandoned in the primary investigation. This approach in the biomedical model of health is considered the most effective and is consequentially the most famous among all other approaches. This approach is also termed as the biopsychosocial model, and as per the researchers, the use of it is increasing in all aspects of the medical discipline. As a matter of appreciation, the approach had reached over 400 Medline titles. From this approach, the contrast that the social and psychological aspects would make a strong influence on the attitude and perception of the patient. The analysis done by this method could reveal the perception and experience of an individual while he is ill.
It is quite often that the person who is undergoing some sort of biological irregularity would live through some strange sensations. Although it totally depends on the biological model of health adopted by the medical practitioner that the inference regarding the disease would be derived. Not even the inference, but also the mode of treatment and the medication depends on the sort of biomedical model of health adopted. It could also be noted that all symptoms could not be taken into account for the diagnosis of the affected disease since some of the symptoms may happen because of the subsidiary discomforts. The analysis of the symptoms should be done very cautiously since it would be the hidden and very subtle symptom, which would lead to the correct diagnosis of the disease.
Though the person is affected by a pathogen or has some biological abnormalities, he would get some consideration and social advantage from society. Since the infected person is not responsible for his own condition, he would have abstained from all the social responsibilities. They have all the right to avail of the healthcare benefits at a very discounted rate. In hospitals, many patients are admitted on a daily basis, who display a very confusing set of symptoms of which only a few are relevant. A series of analyses and tests are done to arrive at a relevant and accurate diagnosis. Only through a meticulous and accurate commencement of diagnosis could reveal the actual medical condition of the patient.
The results obtained from the diagnostic process carries high significance for the medical practitioners and the affected patient since it gives validity for the selected method of treatment and medication prescribed for it. It is very ironic and unfortunate that still the inferences from the diagnosis are given secondary preference.
In the biomedical model, any disease with very confusing and vague symptoms are well recorded for further references. In the discipline of biology, these are termed functional somatic syndrome while reckoning that the factors related to society have the great potential to influence it. Though the fact that it is not urgent that the person is not affected if the symptoms are not visible creates turmoil in the healthcare hierarchy framework. The process and the amount of funding obtained would depend on the mode of diagnosis selected and is free from the fluctuation in the initial cost of treatment. Thus, it is not capable of predicting the probable cost of the treatment to be conducted. The money provided for the treatment would be primarily set apart for the process f diagnosis and methodology of the treatment to be selected. Very less significance is still provided to the medical interventions though there are ample pieces of evidence for its relevance.
From the above-provided context, it is quite clear that the modern biomedical model of health is evolved from the theory of mind-body dualism which existed in the ancient era. The components of the medical system like medical health practitioners’ budgetary systems, health commissioners, etc. make the perception of segregating the mental and physical health problems. You could observe the instances that patients with mental disturbances are always treated separately from those having physical disabilities.
In the modern biomedical model of health, it is the two distinct factors that had created the new model. The primary factor involves the inclusion of classification regarding the impairment, disability, and handicap as per the international guidelines laid down by the World Health Organization. The guidelines mention that the concerned disease has a particular consequence that had been generated by the force of contextual factors. As per the secondary approach, the logical approach towards the pathology is discussed. The ideology from which it had evolved had a strong link with the guidelines mentioned in the national set of parameters especially about stroke and numerous sclerosis.
Below are provided the segregation provided under the international parameters: -
- The parameter of segregation between the public and personal background.
- Considering further factors into consideration in this analytical model like individual selection and probable involvement of voluntary will.
- The classification of the major areas into the dual components of the objective and subjective character.
As per the modern model, that abnormality in the biological aspect happens because of the aberration in the social and physical aspect would lead to various diseases. The whole concept is based on the condition of the patient who ignorant of their own medical condition (The context also includes the patient who is lacking his sound mind.
Below are provided the classification of patients as per the modern biomedical model of health: -
The above figure implies that: -
- The affected population could be classified into two primary groups. The patients with exclusive failure or dysfunction of specific sections come under the classification of Impairment. Similarly, the patients with any dysfunctional organ are called pathology.
- It is been elucidated that the major influencing components could be segregated into the sections of free will and those of personal context which includes the social behavior, attitudes, belief, expectations, etc.)
- The patient has to deal with two different aspects which are od social and physical character.
- The medical interventions and other processes are classified in the aspect of the condition of well mentioned and directed commotions and other contributions.
Application of a new biomedical model of health
It has been observed that the modern biomedical model of health has a lot of applications in the practical context in the medical field. The new model had revealed to the researchers and medical practitioners that any sort of aberration in the human body could prevail even if the biological elements of the human body are not faulty. Hence the prediction of the disease could be done without any existence of the evident symptoms. The new approach had unrevealed the mystery of artificial or the consequential illness which prevailed in the medical field. Although the concept had never altered the concept of disease, it had been a great success to provide the elucidation for various theorems and other medical interventions. Apart from this, the unrevealed areas which would cause illness in the human body were also revealed by the modern biomedical model of health.
Spaced out from the provided context in the above section of this biomedical model of health, it could also be stated that the illness could generate from the other aspects which have the potential to alter the organic symmetry of the human body. If taking the instance of arthritis, it could occur not only from the lack of calcium intake or increasing age but also from the occurrence of stroke. Hence only making all biological components would not absolutely decrease the occurrence of illness. It requires an overall treatment of the elements in the environment and a comprehensive parameter of the human body to bring the human body in coordination and thus totally eliminating the disease. Thus, the new approach has brought a perfect approach towards the medical diagnosis and the treatment, that consequentially had raised the medical standards globally.
It is strongly recommended in the new model that the factors relevant to the contextual importance should be upgraded. The observations and pieces of evidence acquired by the extensive researches conducted strongly support the aforementioned approach. The most benefited division which was benefited from the adoption of this approach is the discipline which handles the patients with strokes. The approach had been successful in changing even the social context and hence has proven to be a very counter-effective move. The normal population has been very conscious regarding their health by the invention of the modern biomedical model of health since they have come to know the risks entailed in practicing occupation with minimal exercise and the amount of time spent in such time of occupation. The approach has also helped in revealing that several illnesses could be cured by changing the personal attitude or behavior, for instance, the application of cognitive behavior therapy in the concerned aspects. The implementation of the new model had also reduced the individual expenditure on medical emergencies since it had consequentially made most of the population aware of their health at a global level.
In the previous biomedical models of health, the significance of the personal or individualistic choices was very less and had lacked efficiency and perfection in many aspects. The factor of individualistic bears a lot of significance since it is a crucial factor in determining human behavior. Most of the population is not aware of their own innate behavior and the diagnosis of it sometimes becomes very crucial in the prescription of the medication. It had been observed in the medical discipline that the factor of personal choice has been one of the major factors in the evolution or the creation of prolonged abnormalities or illness.
Not ending here, the modern biomedical model of health had also revealed the existing debacles existing in the medical field that had helped in the betterment of the whole system and approach. The processes which were more reliant on health care or pathology were observed to be working for a period of a very short period. This had forced the faculties to allocate a shorter period of time in each case and hence avoiding the background of the patient. Whatever the situation would be, the faculties and the other officials have to deal with the flow of patients by making the optimum use of the available facilities. Although in this case, the length of the period and background of the patient turns out to be very significant. The effective working of the medical unit requires the synchronized and boosted effort from all the subsidiary units. If the related departments would not work in harmony then it would become very hard for the officials to handle the patients with the highest efficiency.
The international study on the new biomedical model of health reveals that it contains a lot of loopholes and weak points. Although it has been a great success in the evaluation of various components and factors involved in the genesis of illness in the human body from the perspective of both the individual and the system of health care. The concept of the new biomedical model of health is not only limited to the boundary of the healthcare system. The best example for the apt implementation of the biomedical model of health would be the departments like the criminal justice systems.
Unlike the profit organizations existing in other fields of the economy, the healthcare systems hold the feature of a social organization. The success rate of the health care units would totally rely on the attitude of people residing in society. The societies may represent a simplified and congruent biomedical model of health which in consequence would ascertain both the rights and liabilities which are linked with a patient. The approach also ascertains the way in which this condition should be handled. It was being testimonies by the researchers and the medical practitioners that the implementation of the modern biomedical model of health would ensure the betterment of healthcare center centers in a very accelerated manner. Still, it is debated in the medical field that there should be open debate regarding the health deliveries followed in the various biomedical model of health.
Advantage of implementing the Biomedical model of health
In the societies of the western world, the modern biomedical model of health prevails with great significance in the discipline of biology. The major approach of the biological model of health is on the biological elements which would lead to the abnormalities or illness in human beings. These factors include most of the elements which are related to the day to day life or routine of a person like lack of exercise, smoking, and ingesting unhealthy and fast foods. The instance could be compared with the case of a breakdown in the vehicle because of very poor handling and maintenance (Browne. 2011). The basic ideologies and the principles of the NHS are challenged by the biomedical model of health. The basic sections which are comprised under the division of NHS are the major health care services, traditional approaches towards the medical treatment, and most modern scientific approaches in the medical field. Though the doctors and medical practitioners are trained through an extensive and prolonged training career and they are the only eligible people who could deal with the human bodies. The treatment for a person could only be done under the supervision of a unit that possesses modern techniques and able to provide the patient with effective and relevant treatment. In the adopted biomedical model of health, it is the doctor who holds all the responsibility and power to convey orders. As per the observation of Blaxter in his research paper which was published in the year 2010, it could be stated that a strong link prevails in between the occurrence of disease and the equilibrium in health. This is because the diseases occur because of the imbalance in the body processes and it is by using the medical interventions and medications that the doctors try to restore the ordinary biological balance of the human body. The major concern with respect to the patient is to acquire the premium quality treatment from the medical unit and adoption of the biomedical model of health is very crucial in guaranteeing the delivery of quality service from a health institute like the hospital. This argument was further proven right by the extensive researches and now could be ascertained that the implementation of a better biomedical model of health is of utmost importance. Although, as discussed earlier in this report, the biomedical model of health has a restriction in considering the individualistic aspect of the patient and is only represented by the type of diagnosis selected. It is quite a known fact that both parties, the patient and the medical practitioners don’t encourage any sort of decrease in the quality of caretaking. This could be justified by the heavy use and investment in the field of most modern technologies. The current research in the medical field provides strong pieces of evidence that proves that the application of better technologies has actually increased the degree of care in the global health unit scenario (Pearso et al. 1986). In the view of medical experts Field in 1976 and Blaxter in 1987, the state of illness could be defined as the occurrence of social framework, since the frequency of illness has increased even at the absence of a pathogen or a disease generating factors, of which even the symptoms remain hidden.
Unlike being controlled by the religion, the gynecological aspects pertaining to the gender of women are now being handled by the health units and a special biomedical model of health has been introduced for them. The strong and healthy sexuality could only be expressed by a lady if her sexual and biological cycle is at her brim. This comes although under the conception of lawful marriage in certain societies.
The researchers in the field of medical interventions have expanded their study to the methodology by which the medical practitioners try to implement a certain sort of diagnosis on the patient. This procedure could also be termed as a sickness label. It was being observed by the researchers, Byrne and Long that in the field of consultation, both the patients and doctors hold a very contradictory point of view. This is the reason why most of the doctors in the health units prefer a consultation appointment with a shortened period which is doctor centered in nature). The biomedical model of health should provide the doctor with social control. Although the doctors are entitled to the duty to save the patient by bringing him back to the normal life, the patient is also liable to show great cooperation with medical treatment. The people who have trained adeptly and who come under the category of a medical practitioner should carry out the process of treatment (Browne, 2011).
Criticism and demerit of the biomedical model of health
The major disadvantage or the criticism of the biomedical model of health is that it adopts a more holistic approach and shows more link to the fluctuations in the components of the environment and society instead of focussing more on the deciding factors of the medicine (McKeown, 1979. Cited by Moore, 2008). The major consequence or instance of this argument is the increased level of hygiene or sanitation in the aspects of water supply, supply and distribution of the nutritional food, and providing high-class housing conditions. It was always being also argued by the medical specialist McKeown that the initial doses of the medicines turn out to be extraordinarily effective and hence it is quite possible that the patient ceases to show any earlier symptoms. The medication should not be ceased since the original cause of the symptom would still sustain in the human body. If taken a relevant instance of a patient who has undergone the liver transplant because of the high consumption of alcohol. Before providing the medication, or any sort of treatment, the medical officials should understand the background of the patient and the major reason behind the aforementioned alcohol abuse. The other factors that should be taken into account that the medication should comply with international standards (Giddens, 2009).
From this report on the biomedical model of health, it could be evidence that the modern model of health is in contradiction with the norms followed in society. This argument is based on the fact that the modern approach focusses more on the overall cure rather than the beforehand protection of the disease. Hence the holistic approach was taken by the modern biomedical model of health sometimes turns out to be both negative and positive.
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