In-depth Discussion on Lean and Agile Methodology
There are two main parts to this report assignment:
• Scrum and Kanban: focusing on how these get support from the principles and values, and exploring the connection you see towards running Agile methodologyand lean in an organisation or operation.
• LeSS and DAD: two examples of frameworks for scaling agile and lean from the team level to the entire organisation. Sprint Acceptance criteria: The report should discuss the two general topics above and also incorporate some of the following specific questions into the discussion.
• What is the purpose of using an agile method like Scrum?
• What is the purpose of using a lean method like Kanban?
• What values would you achieve by using Scrum and Kanban as methods? Why?
• How does your organisation use Scrum and/or Kanban? Why?
• What would improve the use of Scrum and/or in your organisation? Why?
• What limitations can you see when using Scrum or Kanban in your organisation?
• What would be the difference between using Scrum or Kanban in your organisation? Why?
• What values does DAD as a development framework focus on?
• What are the limitations of using DAD in a process/organisation when it comes to, e.g., throughput or amount of incoming work? What if we consider increasing the input of work, increasing the frequency of work, or increasing the capacity of work?
• Reason about the way LeSS is structured, e.g.:
o How does it support scalability?
o What are the limitations of using LeSS in a process/organisation when it comes to, e.g., throughput or amount of incoming of work? What if we consider increasing the input of work, increasing the frequency of work, or increasing the capacity of work?
• What are the differences between DAD and LeSS when handling an increased amount of incoming work? Why? Questions focus on your organisation or process. If you do not currently work in an organisation, please consider an organisation you have worked in previously, one that you are otherwise familiar with, or answer based on your idea of a fictional organisation.
• DAD uses different models depending on what the needs are. What would be the DAD solution for your organisation? Why?
• What are the limitations of using DAD in your process/organisation when it comes to, e.g., throughput or amount of incoming work? What if we consider increasing the input of work, increasing the frequency of work, or increasing the capacity of work?
• How would a LeSS structure work in your organisation/process?
• What would be the limitations to use LeSS in your process/organisation when it comes to e.g. throughput or amount of incoming of work? What if we consider increasing the input of work, increasing the frequency of work, or increasing the capacity of work? • What are the differences between DAD and LeSS when handling an increased amount of incoming work from your organisation or process view? Why?
You should not create a Question-Answer document with only these questions. Instead, you should create a report that allows you to demonstrate that you can define the central concepts of this sprint and discuss the questions above in relation to those. For example, for the first question, you might shortly introduce the Agile Manifesto, and then discuss your understanding of it. Remember to write reflectively.
Sprint Acceptance criteria: The report should discuss the concept of flow control in Lean and Agile and also incorporate the following specific questions into the discussion.
• What is the purpose of your value stream activity? What do you hope to achieve? Why?
• What are the values you would like to achieve? Why?
• How do your values correspond to the values in the software value map by Khurum et al (Extending value stream mapping through waste definition beyond customer perspective)?
• What are the start and end points of your intended value stream activity? Why these and not some other points? How does a study of this part of the process fulfil your purpose?
• Is the scope of sufficient size so that the studied process actually influences the identified values?
• Is the scope of reasonable size so that it is possible, on this level, to track creation of the identified values? Will you be able to conduct the subsequent assignments or will your process become too large and complex?
• Who are your key stakeholders? What is a "win condition" for them (i.e., what do you need to provide to make them happy)?
• How does the current process perform with respect to velocity, flow, etc.?
• What are the limitations to the current process when it comes to, e.g., throughput or amount of incoming work?
• Is it possible to understand the process through which the value-adding/non-adding time was measured?
• Are the measures discussed and explained?
• Can we understand the differences between Agile flow control and Lean flow control, i.e., a Kanban flow and a Scrum flow?
The Lean and Agile methodology helps teams in an organisation to deliver at a quick rate and with more sustainability. Reports suggest that most teams which use Agile and Lean are not aware of the similarities or differences between the two methods. The terms are often used in a synonymous way for describing a specific practice set. Many Lean principles have a connection with the Agile development process, which is a rapid delivery process for the software. Any method of development can be described as Agile development process it matches with the concepts that have been summarized in the Agile Manifesto. The Lean methodology helps teams for faster delivery by flow management; it limits the work-in-progress amount and improves focus. Flow management is ensured by Agile teams by working in teams that are cross-functional and deliver one iteration at a time (Altameem, 2015). This report focuses on the connection of using Lean and Agile methods in an organisation relating to the Scrum and Kanban methods. The frameworks which are used to scale the Lean and Agile process, LeSS and DAD have also been discussed elaborately in this report.
Scrum and Kanban
Scrum is a development process that falls under the Agile methodology. Scrum is used for developing software related to an incremental and iterative process. Scrum as a method is very beneficial as it is a fast, adaptable, flexible and effective agile structure that has been developed to bring value to the clients throughout the project development process. Kanban is a method that is related to the management of workflow and it helps the teams to define, manage and improve services by which knowledge work is delivered (Clesham, 2021).
It has often been found out that there is a prevalent misconception amongst people with scrum and agile as scrum focuses on continuous improvement, which is also the key principle of agile methodology. However, agile is an approach and scrum is the framework for getting things done. In order to become agile, the whole mindset of the team has to change and this is why it is tough to apply but a team can easily utilize scrum methodology to begin thinking a way related to agile methodology and also build agile principles into their everyday work and communication. Scrum is a framework that helps people to take a shortcut and think in a way that allows individuals to think faster and solve problems quickly. Scrum methodology has been developed on the basis of constant learning and adjustment to variable factors.
Kanban is a Lean method and it has been designed to drive efficiencies in the development of software (Scott, 2018). Kanban also helps in creating a continuous delivery flow. A pull system is used by Kanban for the optimisation of the workflow development and a limit on the amount of work-in-progress is been placed by Kanban on the basis of the capacity of the team.
Values achieved by using Scrum and Kanban methods
A range of values and principles is covered underScrum and Kanban methods those are:
• Interactions and individuals over tools and procedures
• Improving balance
• Improving collaboration
• Enhancing the workflow of the project
• Introducing openness
• Establishing respect among the employees
• Establishing commitment towards work
• Collaboration of customers and negotiation of contracts
• Improving change response
Every process which follows the values and principles can be referred to as Agile. The team can follow a strict process or can develop their own system on the basis of trial and error; the main factor is the following of the core values.
Organisations prefer to use Scrum as a method as it helps the teams to achieve a better project performance or overall performance and it is easy to adapt, flexible and effective (Babaian, 2019). Scrum helps the team in developing tasks in a way that the team members can easily understand the project requirement and effectively work on it to achieve a better result. Organisations do not have to always choose between Scrum or Kanban as the two methods can be used simultaneously (Johnson, 2017). Using Scrum and Kanban can improve the efficiencies of an organisation effectively. The problem-solving skills of teams can improve and it would take lesser time to solve problems by using these methods. Kanban helps an organisation to manage its workflow development and the sequence of works can be maintained by using Kanban. Using Scrum and/or Kanban can increase the productivity of an organisation enormously as it decreases the work-in-progress time and helps the team to complete the works in a lesser time but with full effectiveness.
Limitations of using Scrum or Kanban
Every methodology has pros and cons of its own, Scrum and Kanban also have limitations and disadvantages of their use, the limitations are discussed below:
Limitations of Scrum
• In order to use Scrum, the person needs to have high-level experience of using the method. In case, the method is being run by an inexperienced person, huge chances of risks related to the operations of the organisation may occur.
• The Scrum team has to be very committed along with having experience.
• The development procedure can be ruined by an inexperienced Scrum user.
• If the task definition contains flaws, inaccuracies may occur in the project (Gorman, 2020).
Limitations of Kanban
• For effective use of Kanban, the board must ensure that it is up-to-date as issues in the development process may occur by using an outdatedKanban.
• Sometimes, the Kanban team can find the board too complicated.
• The phases of the development process have no timing attributed to them as there is no timing in Kanban (Gorman, 2020). An organisation may face many differences in using Scrum or Kanban. Scrum can increase project efficiency, reduce work time and help in the development of different skills related to the work. With the use ofKanban, organisations can develop a framework for their work flowchart and it needs to be kept updated by the organisation from time to time.
LeSS and DAD
The DAD or Disciplined Agile Delivery method has been developed for helping large organisations gain success in operating with Agile methods (Francino, 2016). The values associated with DAD are, people-first approach, the Agile approach with orientation on learning and is objective-driven. One of the key characteristics of Disciplined Agile Delivery is the agenda that the main determinant of success is people, for the information technology delivery projects. The aforementioned philosophy reflects the first principle of Agile methodology, which is interactions and individuals over tools and processes. Various factors like self-discipline, self-awareness and self-organising are stipulated within the team members by the DAD framework.
Limitations of DAD
The Disciplined Agile Delivery framework has various limitations:
• In comparison to other frameworks, the adaption of this framework is slow and moderate, so increasing the amount of work will put pressure on the team using DAD. If the input and frequency of work is increased the rate of the output can be managed.
• The organisations using the DAD framework must enlist a specialist to help the team members execute the structure.
• If any organisation is new in using this model, it would take a lot of time for them to establish coordination and direction for the execution of this framework as the comprehension of the rules and regulations provided in DAD can be intense for the team members to understand.
Structure of LeSS
LeSS or Large Scaled Scrum is a framework used to address the Scrum scaling effectively (Adanza, 2017). LeSS helps in scaling Scrum to multiple groups who are working together on a single project. A single Scrum team is formed as the foundation and gradually applies to all other teams which are working on the same product.LeSS framework supports scalability as it consists of certain features which prove to be beneficial for scaling Scrum (Large Scale Scrum (LeSS), 2021). The team members of the organisation will add processes, roles and artifacts while scaling. The other scaling frameworks fall into the ambush of defining a process but in the case of LeSS, this can be avoided. To achieve a successful scaling, the organisation must focus on LeSS as a structure for the teams altogether instead of focusing on an individual team. The organisation should keep LeSS at a minimum to achieve the scaling process in an effective manner.
Limitations of LeSS
Like any other framework LeSS also has several limitations:
• LeSS can make scaling difficult. If the employees of the organisation are unfamiliar with the principles, goals and gestures of LeSS, it would be harder for them to adapt to the framework. If the amount of work is increased and the work input and frequency is also increased, LeSS might be affective to some extent, but the teams will still struggle with the implementation of the system.
• If the organisation has been using other frameworks or methodologies for executing projects and development of products in the past, they may find it harder to efficiently utilize the LeSS structure without huge extensive training all through the company.
• LeSS would work for only those organisations which had worked with the Scrum framework earlier. The organisations which have not worked with Scrum will have to put in a lot of time and effort to adapt to the framework of LeSS.
While handling an increased amount of work, DAD and LeSS have different approaches (Heusser, 2015). The Scrum activities are scaled up by LeSS by team-of-teams level application. In the LeSS framework planning for a large-scale operation requires two members from each team. Whereas, DAD focuses on the sprint zero decisions that are made by the organisation, before the beginning of the product development.
Fig 1 DAD communication framework
Source: (Alzoubi, Gill and Al-Ani,2015)
The above figure demonstrates the DAD framework and explains its different phases and aspects regarding the communication of the various teams related to the development of a single product or project.
The organisation that has been chosen for the discussion is Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola is a large organisation and a variety of works are operated in there. A range of models are used by DAD for different organisations, the models or structures are decided based on the requirements of the organisation. Coca-Cola is a company where there is an immense workload, and an increasing amount of works occurs each and every day. DAD would focus on the decisions related to the process of the projects and operations of the company and would ensure that the projects and operations are executed with effectiveness and at their full potential. The use of DAD in Coca-Cola would benefit the organisation but would make the work processes slower and moderate. Scrum scaling can be made difficult with the use of LeSS in Coca-Cola. DAD and LeSS have a basic difference while handling an increased amount of work in the adaption of the process. DAD would make the process restrained while LeSS would increase the rate of response of the work but it can be difficult to implement. ?
Purpose of the value stream activity
A value stream is the set of activities and actions that takes place to bring value to the customers and the process involved in bringing value to the customers is the values stream activity. The value stream activity in the lean and agile methods has different understanding and processes involved in it. The main purpose of my value stream activity is to construct a primary understanding and turn the raw materials into the products that can be purchased by the customers. I would like to achieve value from the customers by supplying them with a quality product. Value stream would help me to gain more customers and this will increase the sales revenue and profits and also increase the brand value.
The value that I would like to achieve from using value stream activity is to make my product a global brand. By implementing the agile method will help to deliver work as fast as possible due to its development and improvement in the software and using the lean method will help me to increase the performance of the workforce or the teams involved in the completion of the work. The lean method helps in managing the workflow and also increases the work speed. The main motive of using these methods is to finish the work in time and deliver the products as fast as possible and fulfil and satisfy the demands and supply of the customers. This process will help to achieve the values and also helps to increase eth brand value and enter a global market for more productivity.
From my perspective of value that has been created by the product supplies and its quality in the values stream mapping it completely fits in. An increase in value means bringing development in the product and its quality and customers are liking the product and this automatically increases the market value. From the waste definition, the value stream mapping has been done from the customer perspective (Jeong and Yoon, 2016).The software value map helps in analyzing and monitoring the every task of the company. In Coca-Cola the software value map helps in managing the tasks and work in improvement.The company aims in bringing development in the software system for better outcome and productivity.The VSM in health& production and military sections has achieved improvements in products and processes. In creating value, the value stream mapping and software value map helps in managing and maintaining the workflow and product development by using the waste materials most of which is waste for the customers.
Start and end points of intended value stream activity
The start and endpoints of the intended value steam activity of mine are that discussing with the team members with the help of the value stream mapping. This helps to understand the process involved in doing production and in manufacturing the product. The start point discussion also helps to know the risks that might occur in between the process and with the help of the value stream mapping it helps to analyze it and mitigate the issues as well. The endpoints of the intended values stream activity are final checks after the manufacturing and production process is finished. This gives assurance that the manufactured product is good and can be moved for further process. The value stream activity in this process will help to identify if there is any process left for the work completion and helps to increase value as well. The start and end points of the intended value stream activity helps in brining company to the way of success and the process fulfills the purpose as this helps in analyzing the real issues and helps to maintain work flow smoothly.
Yes, the scope of the lean and agile method is of sufficient size and this tremendously influences the identified values. The lean and agile method works in bringing improvement in work by increasing the team speed and helps to increase workflow and by using various software in development and production process.
Yes, the scope of lean and agile development is of reasonable size and is possible to analyze and identify the values on this level of the track. The lean and agile development methods not only work in bringing improvement in the work but also help to deliver the product in less time with the help of the software development spaces (Planview, Inc, 2021). Both methods help in fulfilling the demand of the customers by managing the software programs by agile development method and delivering fast with bringing a commitment to the clients by lean development method. I will be able to conduct the subsequent assignments and make them easy to understand and use for safety and useful development purposes.
The key stakeholders in Coca-Cola are the customers and the employees these are the primary ones that help to improve the business and bring development as well. The suppliers, governments and investors are the essential stakeholders that help to run the business smoothly and without any obligations (Fernando, 2021). The company has always worked in providing satisfying drinks to the customers that help them to make refresh their minds in summer. The product made by the company is globally established and is renowned for its quality drinks that could be used in parties and other small family functions. The company follows the ethics and principles and values of the employees and help to make them satisfied my healthy workplace and providing monetary rewards as well (Ethical Consumer Research Association Ltd, 2019). For the other stakeholders, the company followed the government guidelines to run the business and focused on improving the business and it was a win condition for them.
Velocity in the Agile process is used for the measurement of the amount of work that can be completed in each iteration. The development teams of an organisation create efficient and accurate timelines with the help of velocity in Agile methodology. Velocity in Agile is measured in weeks, sprints or iterations. Flow is a concept that is used in the post-agile processes. Any individual in a system who can improve its performance via enhanced social communication is recognised by flow (Shaughnessy, 2020).The current process responds collaboratively with respect to velocity and flow, it increases the velocity and flow measurement output.
Agile and Lean have various limitations, the limitations are discussed below:
• The Agile methodology often results in poor planning of resources. The prediction of efforts, like time, cost and resources which are needed in the initial stage of a project, is challenging (Lynn, 2020).Thus, increased amount of work would make the process slower.
• Agile provides limited chances of documentation. In Agile methodology, the documentation process is carried out throughout the project, not just at the beginning of the project. As an outcome, the documentation may become less detailed and frequently gets postponed.
• The measurement in the Agile process is difficult to execute. The measurement of the KPIs and the progress of the project are difficult in this method (Lynn, 2020).
The value added to the development can be measured through the process of Agile methodology. The measurement approach of Agile focuses on improvement and ensures that value is achieved (Hallowell, 2010). Various metrics are used to assess the various phases of an Agile project, such as product quality measurement, measurement of the satisfaction level of the stakeholders, team learning measurement and others. It can also be measured if a value was not added to the organisation or the project with the help of the Agile method. The measurement of the progress of the project helps the organisation to understand whether any value was added to the projects or not. The measures related to the value addition are discussed and explained elaborately through the use of Agile methodology (Verheyen, 2014). In Agile methodology, various measures are used to measure the value-added, such as team learning, wherein, the learning ability and the newly learnt skills of the teams are measured and discussed to find any gap or scope of improvement. The improvement of the process is also measured by tracking the current state of the project and comparing it to the anticipated state. Differences between Agile flow control and Lean flow control Though Agile and Lean can be used simultaneously, there are differences that are required to be pointed out.
• Speed and iteration approach- The aim of Agile is to deliver working software as fast as possible. The teams are enabled to utilize the feedbacks from the customer immediately with the help of everyday software or product delivery. This feedbacks are used to make changes in any upcoming project. The Kanban flow control is used in this process (Stellman and Greene, 2014).
This is very parallel to the principle of the Lean method of Deliver Fast. The idea of Deliver Fast explains the concept that the quicker a value is delivered to a customer, the sooner the team can learn from the feedback.
• Putting customers first- Customer satisfaction is set as the primary goal for both Agile and Lean processes. The goal is accomplished by Agile teams by focusing on open interactions between developers and customers/end users. Whereas customers are out first by Lean teams with emphasizing on building and enhancing procedures that enable them to do that, decreasing waste is a major part of that.
• The function of discipline- Although Agile processes are less divisional than their precursors, it is more structured than the Lean process. Agile teams are enabled to adapt and move quicker than Lean teams due to the disciplined process.
In conclusion, it can be said that the report gives a clear and in-depth understanding of Scrum, Kanban, LeSS, and DAD. Along with that, the report has also discussed the flow control in Lean and Agile. The identification and discussion of values achieved through the Scrum and Kanban method have been discussed in the report. Interaction, collaboration, and operation convenience are the values that can be created through the use of Scrum and Kanban. Along with that, their limitations as well in these two approaches, and are a requirement of higher experiences, the requirement of up-to-date processes, the complexity of the approach, and the requirement of intensive level of commitment. Furthermore, the report also discusses the LeSS and DAD which is a Scrum and Agile method respectively. The agile method, that is DAD, promotes objective-driven learning and the success of this method depends on the people. On the other hand, Less is a Scrum method that allows integrated work in a single project. In the LeSS process, the team members themselves form processes and distribute roles among themselves. However, these two methods are not free of limitations because, DAD method is time-consuming, needs an intervention of an enlisted specialist and the company will take a long time to coordinate and establish direction. The fewer frameworks also have limitations such as difficulty in scaling and transition from the old method to LeSScan be complex. In the second part of the report, a detailed discussion about Agile and Lean has been presented along with its limitations. Furthermore, the difference in the flow control of Agile and Lean has also been given in great detail. The limitations that were identified were poor resource planning, limited documentation opportunity, and difficulty in execution. Therefore, through all these discussions and identification, it can be said that the report successfully gives an understanding of the Agile and Lean frameworks.
Adanza, F. (2017).Scaling Frameworks, Agile Models, and Your Team - DZone Agile. [online] dzone.com. Available at: https://dzone.com/articles/scaling-frameworks-agile-models-and-your-team [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Altameem, E. (2015). Impact of Agile Methodology on Software Development.Computer and Information Science, [online] 8(2). Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7a91/0cdcb498461fd533ac7f125546c1d3ec0f28.pdf [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Alzoubi, Y.I., Gill, A.Q. and Al-Ani, A. (2015).Distributed Agile Development Communication: An Agile Architecture Driven Framework. [online] ResearchGate. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/DAD-communication-holistic-framework_fig3_283196344 [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Babaian, A. (2019).Becoming Agile with the Scrum Framework - ProQuest. [online] www.proquest.com. Available at: https://www.proquest.com/docview/2345539401?pq-origsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Clesham, M. (2021).Agile Methodologies: Scrum and Kanban. [online] BrightWork.com. Available at: https://www.brightwork.com/blog/agile-methodologies-scrum-and-kanban [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021]. Ethical Consumer Research Association Ltd (2019). Coca-Cola Company, The | Ethical Consumer. [online] Ethical Consumer. Available at: https://www.ethicalconsumer.org/company-profile/coca-cola-company [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Fernando, J. (2021). Stakeholder. [online] Investopedia. Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/stakeholder.asp [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021]. Francino, Y. (2016). SAFevs DAD: Large-scale agile frameworks comparison. [online] TechBeacon. Available at: https://techbeacon.com/app-dev-testing/large-scale-agile-frameworks-compared-safe-vs-dad [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Gorman, M. (2020).Scrum Vs. Kanban: Weighing Their Pros and Cons. [online] Techvera. Available at: https://techvera.com/scrum-vs-kanban-weighing-their-pros-and-cons/ [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Hallowell, D.L. (2010). Finding a Value-added Fit with Agile Development. [online] iSixSigma. Available at: https://www.isixsigma.com/tools-templates/software/finding-value-added-fit-agile-development/ [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021]. Heusser, M. (2015).SaFEvsLeSSvsDaDvsLeadingAgile: Comparing scaling agile frameworks. [online] CIO. Available at: https://www.cio.com/article/2974436/comparing-scaling-agile-frameworks.html [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Jeong, B.K. and Yoon, T.E. (2016).IMPROVING IT PROCESS MANAGEMENT THROUGH VALUE STREAM MAPPING APPROACH: A CASE STUDY. [online] ScieloBrazil. Available at: https://www.scielo.br/j/jistm/a/wRTL87bgXHG6zZd8GGNNvxt/?lang=en&format=pdf [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Johnson, J. (2017). Lean or Agile: Lessons Learned from a Tech Startup. [online] Available at: http://pmsymposium.umd.edu/pm2017/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2017/01/Lean_or_Agile_Lessons_Learned_from_a_Tech_Startup-Johnson.pdf [Accessed 26 Apr. 2020].
Large Scale Scrum (LeSS). (2021). Why LeSS? [online] Available at: https://less.works/less/framework/why-less [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Lynn, R. (2020). What are the Disadvantages of Agile? | Planview. [online] Planview. Available at: https://www.planview.com/resources/articles/disadvantages-agile/ [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Planview, Inc (2021). The Relationship Between Lean and Agile Development. [online] Planview. Available at: https://www.planview.com/resources/articles/lean-agile-development/ [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021]. Scott, A. (2018). An introduction to Lean Kanban software development. [online] Inviqa. Available at: https://inviqa.com/blog/introduction-lean-kanban-software-development [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Shaughnessy, H. (2020). What is flow? [online] Medium. Available at: https://medium.com/flow-the-new-agile-framework/what-is-flow-da4828f87758 [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Stellman, A. and Greene, J. (2014).Learning Agile: Understanding Scrum, XP, Lean, and Kanban. [online] Google Books. “O’Reilly Media, Inc.” Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=XLxUBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT33&dq=kanban+agile+methodology&ots=eW7q4Sqoeb& sig=uXN1OqYwJ2RUBvyMhll04aejtrI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=kanban%20agile%20methodology& f=false [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021].
Verheyen, G. (2014). Measuring Success, Measuring Value. [online] Scrum.org. Available at: https://www.scrum.org/resources/blog/measuring-success-measuring-value [Accessed 28 Oct. 2021]. ?