Psychology Assignment: Dissertation On Psychological Safety Within Team Members Of Anonymous
Your psychology assignment task is to prepare a dissertation on the topic “Psychological Safety within Teams”.
The fundamental aim of the research on psychology assignment is to analyse the core perspectives and argumentative concepts associated with the subject of psychological safety in an organisational context. The research has been developed to identify the notion of psychological safety and the impacts of the concept on the overall development of organisational integrity and proficiency of groups. Team performance is the core strength for an organisation which leads to increased productivity and performance of the companies. Establishment of a strong team is dependent on the personal behaviour and efficiency of each individual within the group. The organisations need to provide the employees with utmost psychological safety which will allow them to feel liberated to share their ideas and professional credibility. The research has been segmented in six distinctive chapters. The research subject has been explored through these six chapters to establish the alignment of the research result with the research objectives. The research findings have been developed through the application of both qualitative and quantitative methods. The findings have been evaluated properly in the discussion segment to reach the final result of the research to establish the core argument of the subject. The entire research gets a proper direction through the specific description of each chapter of the research.
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Research
Psychological safety at work is the collective assurance that interpersonal threats can be managed as a group. These threats include learning about team dynamics whenever there is a problem and it involves sharing ideas (Newman, Donohue and Eva, 2017). There has been a decrease in employees' turnover in their groups for a manager who promotes healthy, psychological working environments.In other words, a psychologically healthy environment is the place where people are empowered to exchange knowledge. In the past 20 years, the workplace has shifted to an increasingly technological and collaborative environment where most of the workers live on a team basis, and the Financial Conduction Authority (FCA) established it as a key characteristic of the healthy corporate culture.
A study found that over three-quarters of a person's workday involve contact with his or her colleagues and that the performance of these relationships can impact the success and working atmosphere of an organisation directly or indirectly.Firms must pay special attention to Psychological safety in the workplace to ensure it is indeed positive (Wang, Liu and Zhu, 2018). If an organisation fails to take into consideration the people's interpersonal dynamics, they disregard a core aspect. PwC's research showed that strong psychological safety facilitates thinking skills and employee innovation. The employee turnover at management consulting firms usually tend to be high due to the imposed pressure, so the importance of psychological safety within the teams of management consulting firms are of utmost significance.
1.2 Problem Statement
The research is conducted to analyse the importance of Psychological safety within team members of the organisation Anonymous, which is generally a management consulting firm in Bangalore with its headquarter in Chicago, UK. The research is significant as it highlights the ways and best management practices that can be implemented to acknowledge the challenges faced by employees in the management consulting firms. The research draws light on the significance of psychological safety within teams for managing interpersonal threats and improving team efficiency. The research draws upon mane relevant literature to bring accurate facts and discussion regarding the impact of psychological safety within team members. The working culture of the management consulting firms tends to be toxic, as there are a lot of work pressures owing to the existing competition between the firms. As a result, it is generally seen that employee turnovers seem to be high in management consulting firms (Allenet al., 2018). Thus, individuals on teams with increased psychological safety are less likely to leave the firms as well as are likely to offer better services to the companies. Therefore, the research throws light on the link between psychological safety and employee engagement as well as evaluates the best safety management practice that further helps organisations to attain success and create psychological safety within employees.
1.3 Aims and Objectives
The main aim of the research is to analyse the significance of Psychological safety within the teams of Anonymous, amanagement consulting firm in Bangalore, India; which is further headquartered at Chicago, US. The objectives of the following research are listed below:
- To analyse the relevance between individual Psychological perceptions and organisational team culture.
- To highlight the challenges and Psychological insecurities which individuals may face while operating in teams.
- To evaluate the link between Psychological safety and engagement
- To assess the effects of team management practices entailing decision-making, problem-solving and enhancing performance
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions of the following research include:
- What is the relevance between individual psychological perceptions and organisational team culture?
- What are the challenges that teams encounter regarding the psychological safety in the organisations?
- What is the relationship between psychological safety and employee engagement?
- What are the effects of team management practices entailing decision-making, problem-solving and enhancing performance?
1.5 Research Rationale
The following research mainly analyses key findings regarding the significance of Psychological safety in the anonymous management consulting firm in India. The research is conducted employing qualitative method and survey is conducted for deriving considerable findings. The qualitative methodology helps to derive accurate and relevant literature regarding the topic that in turn provides authenticity to the following research. The management of consultancy culture tends to be toxic because the existing competition between companies generates a large number of work pressures. As a consequence, the turnover of employees in the management consulting firms places a heavy burden in general. People on teams with enhanced psychological protection are also less likely to abandon companies and provide better services to businesses.
Thus, the research enables management consultancies to identify the ways of enhancing psychological safety among employees that in turn improves the service of the entire organisation. The research is further conducted to provide ways of improving the psychological health of employees that result in better work productivity and generation of creative and innovative ideas for effective organisational management. The survey is conducted by following the research ethics principle that provides security and confidentiality among the respondents. Thus, the research is conducted to provide an effective solution to mitigate the psychological safety challenges within teams in the management consultant organisations.
1.6 Research Structure
The research structure helps in providing a proper framework for the entire research. The structure for the following research is mentioned below:
- The first chapter of the research includes the introduction that sets the background of the research and provides the main objectives and rationale of the research.
- The literature review section is included in the second chapter and the literature review of the chapter is conducted by evaluating peer-reviewed journals.
- The third chapter of the research includes the methodology that provides the research design and the process of data collection employed for conducting the research.
- The fourth chapter includes the findings that provide the final results of the research and analyses the complete aspect of the research.
- The discussion is included in the fifth chapter that generally justifies the findings and binds the entire research together.
- The Conclusion is included in the final chapter that presents the complete viewpoint of the topic as well as provides recommendations concerning the issues of the research.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Chapter Overview
As per Newman, Donohue and Eva (2017), the concept of psychological safety is identified as the perceptions possessed by the individuals concerning the consequences of the interpersonal risks in a specific framework. The notion of psychological safety was first explored by pioneering organisational scholars in the year the 1660s. Since then, the concept has been revolutionised and used in the current situational setting for the understanding of the subject precisely. The subject got various interpretations and exposure around the 1990s. Amy Edmondson had first interpreted the concept in the context of organisational teams in 1999. According to (Edmondson, 1999), psychological safety is recognised as a critical factor in the process of understanding the phenomenon regarding organisational learning, teamwork, etc. The literature review segment will explore the fundamental of the core subject and establish a cognitive understanding of the concept. It will also provide clarity on the specific subject which will allow the entire revelation concerning psychological safety to be more precise.
The literature review segment aims to establish concise reasoning of the concerns related to the organisational psychological safety (Frazieretal., 2017). The importance of the subject is immense and it has a remarkable influence on the organisational activities. The section will evaluate the implication of psychological safety on the individuals and elaborate on the probable challenges apropos for the issue. It will also form the basic explanation of the approaches adopted by the organisations to reduce negative impacts and maximize the efficiency of the team performance (Delizonna, 2017). The literature review segment will establish a comprehensive analysis of the interrelation between psychological safety and employee engagement. The research has been directed towards the examination of the psychological safety within the teams in the management consultancy industry. The study on the relationship between psychological safety and engagement will be supported through a precise and comprehensive justification of a theoretical framework (Schulte, Cohen and Klein, 2012). This will enhance the legitimacy of the supporting statements concerning the primary subject of the research and also highlight the relevance of the concern in the specific industry context.
2.2 Evaluation of the Importance of Psychological Safety in the Management Consulting Firms of India
According to Edmondson (2002), organisational creativity and innovative strategic development are the indispensable aspects in current times. The relevancy of the concepts such as learning interests, creative opinions, industrial understanding, and professional improvisation is the key components in the organisational arena. These factors play an important role in the development and sustainability of organisations. Especially in The current competitive market situation, the development and encouragement of these attitudes are highly appreciated (Edmondson, Kramer and Cook, 2004). With increasing competition and strong industrial norms, the application of brainstorming, application of creative thinking and talent implementation has become relevant. Usage of personal experience and skills has become more relevant rather asking for solutions from the authority. The aspect of psychological safety is important in the success of organisations. Employees are the foundational pillars within an organisation. According to Edmondson (2018), they contribute to the overall development of the company by spending their intellect and experience on the predicted tasks. Employees are given the liberty to exercise their talents and skills on the organisational strategies to boost the efficiency and performance of the overall result. Employees are responsible for the execution of the tasks to accomplish the organisational objectives.
Thus, complete participation of each employee is essential to proceed with the task requirements. Opinions, perception and involvement of every employee are prioritised within the organisation. As per Madjar and Ortiz-Walters (2009), employee participation is the key to organisational advancement. Psychological safety indicates the feeling of the acceptance of an employee with proper voice, concerns, half-baked ideas or even bad news by the organisational authority. It also suggests the feeling of trust and value that an individual employee feels within an organisation. While working in an organisation, the primary concern of the employees is to feel accepted. Employee voice has huge significance in the growth process of an organisation. The engagement of the employees is fundamental. Their perspectives and intellectual contribution help the organisations to resolve critical issues and optimize potential strategies to facilitate the organisational objectives. Organisational decision making is one of the most critical aspects that direct the performance level of the company (Bradleyetal., 2012). Therefore, the involvement of every employee is important to form the right strategy to address the requirements of the company and also drive the resources to the proper direction to achieve organisational goals effectively. An employee must feel liberated to raise relevant questions, concerns, put forward innovative ideas without being neglected or degraded.
They should feel allowed to perceive individualistic ideas and promote them without provoking any negative repercussions. The issue of psychological safety is more relevant in the present era as many organisations have a remote work ambience and encourage confined work culture which decreases employee participation and cause harm to the entire organisational performance structure. As per Newman (Donohue and Eva, 2017), the repression of employee voice can be done in multiple ways and on various grounds. Many people are adjusting with such working conditions and often find themselves neglected or restricted to opine on the organisational matters. Their voices are oppressed and often regulated. It restricts them to apply their skills for the development of company Employees from different organisations are confessing about inequality and racial discriminations. The acceptance of different opinions and ideas provide the employees with a sense of psychological security. This helps these employees to further develop their professional credibility and confidence.
The perceptions and personal understandings should be valued and proper attention which allows the individuals to perform better. Various researches show psychological safety as the most important factor for organisational development. One should feel the authority to speak up. Studies refer to the importance of psychological safety as it provides various benefits for the employees and enhances their confidence, creativity, relational interdependence and productivity. Especially in high-performing teams, psychological safety is central. In high performing teams, effecti8ve inclusion of various ideas is needed to establish a rational strategic direction. As per Delizonna (2017), while working within a team, every employee needs to be able to take approaches which might have negative consequences. But they should not be restricted to take those risks rather they should feel confident and do not feel embarrassed. Psychological safety is necessary for team performance where people get integrated and work toward a shared goal which facilitates both the team and the organisational aspirations.
Researchers have shown that organisations that allow the employees to speak up and provide their opinions are more likely to increase their productivity by 12% than others. The approach of conviviality helps the employees to engage more effectively into the work ambience and contribute better in the workplace (Frazieretal., 2017). Psychological safety enables a team to work together while sharing values and trust. It helps the team to increase their efficiency by supporting inter-dependency and intellectual strength.
2.3Rationalization of the Approaches of Increasing Psychological Safety within Teams
According toMadjar and Ortiz-Walters (2009), psychological safety has been a central subject of discussion from the past few years. The importance of psychological safety is recognised in an organisational context. The importance of employees has always been prioritised by organisations. Companies are conscious about their employee management experts and invest resource and efforts to build a strong employee team to boost organisational performance by aligning organisational objectives with employee expertise (Edmondson, Kramer and Cook, 2004). The lack of psychological safety causes a slowdown of organisational productivity. Psychological safety is felt by an employee when his ideas and skills are accepted with an open mind and treated without any discrimination. The right treatment to the opinions of the employees results in an integrated team performance which leads to increased organisational performance.
As per Edmondson (2018), Teams in a welcoming environment helps the members to grow and evolve better in their professional field. An encouraging organisational authority allows the members to foreground their expertise through sharing their personal experience and knowledge. Psychological safety lets the employees explore their professional knowledge and apply those in the practical phenomenon. Psychological safety has an array of advantages for the growth of the employees which will cause overall organisational scalability. Psychological safety helps the individuals to feel much more confident about their professional abilities, build internal trust and develop teamwork tendency, inspires them to be creative and increase knowledge and expertise (Edmondson, Kramer and Cook, 2004). There is a range of challenges that occur because of the absence of psychological safety. It affects the i8ntellectual contributory tendency and disrupts the overall work capacity.
Confidence is one of the most important characteristics that an individual must possess while being present in an organisational environment. Confidence is a profound indicator of professional calibre and expertise (Bradleyetal., 2012). Psychological safety provides employees with professional confidence that allows them to perform more rationally and contribute their intellect to every task. Lack of psychological safety creates a significant void within employees which distracts them to perform properly.
Lack of creativity
According to Madjar and Ortiz-Walters (2009), creativity is another significant factor that allows employees to express their intellectual power and show their efficiency regarding any task. Psychological safety helps the employees to reflect their creativity and increase organisational innovativeness. Lack of safety creates hesitation and embarrassment among the employees which restricts them to express their expertise in front of the authority.
Less commitment to the authority
Organisational commitment is a result of high organisational integrity and trust between the authority and the employees (Bradleyetal., 2012). Lack of which increases the distance between employees and the hierarchy. It also destabilises the organisational unity and decreases commitment towards the hierarchy.
Trust among the employees helps the authority to succeed in organisational operations. A team consists of diverse people from various backgrounds which influence their behaviour towards each other (Edmondson, 2018). A team always work to achieve a particular goal. Thus, the internal work pressure remains prominent. This ambience often creates resistance among group members to collaborate and coexist. Lack of psychological safety therefore lowers the trust and weakens the independence among the members which affect the overall organisational performance.
2.4 Analysis of the Correlation between Psychological Safety and Engagement
There is a positive relationship between engagement and performance, and researchers claim that engaged employees offer a competitive advantage to the companies (Dalalet al., 2012). Employees ought to be able to take the physical, cognitive and emotional dimensions of Kahn to function to "unleash their human spirit". Its meaning is that people want satisfaction through self-expression in their working life and are hindered if they are not able to dive themselves into their jobs enough. The lack of immersion could lead to a decommissioning of the involvement or worse, lead to disengagement.
Workers with a higher degree of psychological safety prefer to interact, express their thoughts and function. As per U?URLU and Sibel (2016), workers are more likely to share their thoughts, participate in constructive disagreements and simply feel secure. Such safety is correlated to a variety of job outcomes, including creativity, the transmission of knowledge, divergent reasoning and even business success. Workers are more likely to share their thoughts, participate in constructive disagreements and simply feel secure in the perception of psychological safety.Companies continue to search for opportunities to include workers and assess the factors that impact their presence. Psychological safety is one work condition thought to influence their engagement. Baer and Frese (2003) found a powerful correlation between psychological safety and environment supporting initiatives. The well-established concept of psychological safety can help to explain the reasons behind the probability or improbability of employee engagement. Utilising social exchange theory (SET), thecorrelates of the relationship between psychological safety and employee engagement can be identified and evaluated to understand the mandatory actions for of a management consulting firm to implement in their organisation.
2.4.1 Social Exchange Theory (SET)
The social exchange theory implies that a set of mutual human relationships are continuously creating individual commitments. Huanget al. (2016) have suggested that it is one of the most significant theories of social interaction in social sciences. The core principle of SET is that, as long as there are no 'regulations' of communication, faithful, confident, mutually dedicated relationships evolve. The rules presume that one party's liability corresponds to the other party's reciprocity. Rather than individual legal responsibilities, the basis for SET depends on faith. The SET lens clarifies the various constructs as each representative of the fundamental employee-organisation exchange relationship, which we view as vital to levels of employee psychological safety and engagement. According to Dunne and Greenwald (2014), among the four correlates of psychological safety, i. e perceived organisational support, perception of equity, perception of politics and psychological contracts as a moderator, the last one is what we need to understand the relationship between psychological safety and engagement.
Psychological Contracts as a Moderator
People are more interested in taking risks and trying new stuff when there is psychological safety in their surrounding. The reciprocal obligation between the organisation and the employee is described by psychological contracts. As per Dunne and Greenwald (2014),there are three ways that employees follow to perceive psychological safety:
- Implicit or explicit promises from recruiters and interviewers
- Several structural signals that the organisation communicates about
- Interactions with managers and co-workers
Psychological contracts not only involve implicit social exchanges, but also the structure and explicit formal contracts between workers and employers. The definition of relational contracts is given by MacNeil (1985) in his continuum of contracts through intrinsic focus, comprehensive scope and open-ended time frame. Extrinsic focus, narrow scope of work and close-ended time frame characterised transactional contracts. A transaction is a contract that reflects a short-term agreement of exchange. Extensive degree of organisational citizenship behaviours, superior performance in uncertain settings and high support from the organisation are what is proposed for promotion through relational contracts. Such contracts are thought of as the relationship between employees and the organisation.
2.4.3 Areas of Relation between Psychological Safety and Engagement
There are close relations between employee engagements with psychological safety. Kahn described personal involvement as the degree to which people take up their positions and not just the workplace (Kahn, 1990). Therefore, fully dedicated workers are not only happy to support themselves and to be content with additional positions, but they also carry on all facets of their employment.The author considered (dis)engagement and psychological safety in the observational studies to be connected in a variety of main areas: relationship, management style and organisational standards.
Kahn’s interviews and findings revealed that the effect of positive interactions that facilitated creativity was psychological safety. It means that people can attempt work in different ways without negative effects, or even socialize in various manners, as per Cheponis (2020). Trust is also a key ingredient of psychological security relationships. It is crucial, in other words, that one person knows what to expect of the other to build a predictable atmosphere within relationships.
Kahn observed that relationships between multiple levels of the organisational hierarchy are less stable than those carried out at a similar level (Cheponis, 2020). The hierarchical character of these relationships makes it worth maintaining a reliable and welcoming atmosphere for workers to feel less hidden in manager-subordinate relationships. Workers often feel more confident in the resilience of supervisors, which will rebound from difficulties or failures and employees may work without fear that an accident can affect them. Ultimately, workers deserve to be in control of their job and be free to settle about everyday tasks.
Greater levels of psychological safety cause workers to feel better at work and take chances. It really can give a pause, since the degree to which people should articulate themselves as they retain their professionalism can have a cap. In particular, Kahn (1990) observed that those with greater psychological safety appear to function more tightly within corporate and job expectations than those with less psychological certainty, and therefore, engagement in organisational activities.
2.5Assessment of the Best Safety Management Practices for Improving Team Performance
One of the basic ingredients amongst the highest performance teams is psychological safety. The assumption that in the event of an accidental error, they are not suspended is what binds employees' trust with the organisation. Such safety makes it possible to take mild risks, to speak their mind out and enables creativity, as per Kim, Lee and Connerton (2020). The progress of the 21st century is based on another system—the extended and evolved mode of positive emotion, which enables us to overcome complex problems and promote cooperation.Confidence, curiosity, trust and motivation enhance the mind and assist us in creating psychological, physical and social resources. When employees feel secure, they become more open-minded, robust, inspired, and persistent. Humour improves, and so do finding ideas and new thought as well as creativity's cognitive method. Rohet al. (2018) have suggested that if the workplace is stressful, but not threatening, the teams will help to expand and build. Anonymous must consider the following steps which are the best management practices in retaining a psychologically safe environment in the workplace.
A collaborative approach from the management
People hate to lose more than they love to win. Any perceived loss is attempting, through rivalry, criticism or disengagement, to restore justice which is a form of impotence learned from work (Delizonna, 2017). Real achievement is a win-win result, so if disputes arise, employees will avoid responding by asking if they can meet the reciprocal desired result.
Maintenance of basic human behaviour
Based on understanding the universal need for respect, competence, social status and autonomy are underpinned by every team which confronted them. Naturally, awareness of these deeper needs increases trust and encourages constructive language and behaviour.
Anticipating reactions and strategies countermoves
Considering thinking in advance of how the audience responds to the messages of the management means that their content is understood versus an intrusion on their personality or ego. An organisation should confront uncomfortable discussions skilfully, brace itself for possible responses (Delizonna, 2017). For instance, when talking about major topics, Anonymous need to obtain clear evidence against defensiveness.
Replacing blame with curiosity
When team members believe like they are blamed by the management, then they start presuming the authority as a predator. Criticism and blame are reliably escalating tension and ultimately contributing to defensiveness and disengagement. In such a scenario, curiosity is the alternative to blame. When an organisation already feels it knows what another person thinks, it's not prepared to discuss (Rohet al., 2018). Rather, it needs to take a learning approach, because then it presumes it does not have all the truth.
Asking for feedback during project delivery
Organisation disarms their opponent by asking the employees for feedback regarding the approaches they followed to convey their message. It can simultaneously elucidate blind spots in communication skills, as well as modelling imperfection. This eventually increases trust towards leaders among the employees.
Measurement of psychological safety
A company's management must constantly ask the staff how secure they feel and whether their sense of safety can be strengthened (Kim, Lee and Connerton, 2020). The team also performs routine psychological security surveys and other team dynamics.
When organisations develop this sense of psychological safety on their teams from the very beginning stage, they can expect to experience higher degrees of engagement, enhanced motivation to deal with complex issues, more opportunities for learning and development, and superior performance among employees.
2.6 Literature Gap
The literature review section has been developed to address the core aspects concerning the primary subject of the research which is psychological safety among the teams within an organisational context. The segment has been established to highlight the importance of the concept and how the aspect affects the overall organisational presence of the employees. The impacts caused by the lack of psychological safety has been discussed and evaluated precisely to establish the relevance of the concept in a current organisational context. Measures adopted by the management to address the concern have also been critically included in the literature review to recognise the fundamental perspectives on the topic.
The subject does not have any vivid gap within its argumentative area yet due to the limited research space a definite concept could not be built around the disengagement of the team members within the organisational setting. Which according to Kahn, is necessary to evaluate for the organisations to provide a psychologically safe environment to the employees. The role of an individual is also necessary to understand while discussing psychological safety which is not described precisely in the literature segment (Kahn, 1990). An array of data could be included about the subject to understand the influence of personal perspectives on psychological safety which has not been evaluated in the segment precisely to support the entire research subject.
The entire chapter has discussed the psychological safety and its importance in employee engagement in organisations. To be more precise, the discussion has centred around the psychologically safe environment of the management consultancy firms in India. The chapter has also analysed the problems faces by employees when they do not feel safe within an organisational setting. This discussion establishes the importance of analysing if the workplace is psychologically safe or not. In this context, the relationship between psychological safety among employees and their engagement in the organisation is discussed. The SET theory demonstrates that psychological contracts can work as a moderator in the process of understanding the approach of building such a safe environment within the organisation. Alongside, the study of Kahn has been evaluated to comprehend the areas where these two factors are related to each other. This has further led to the concern of evaluating the steps taken by organisations in the development and maintenance of a safe workplace for employees so that their engagement and commitment towards organisations increases.
Chapter 3: Methodology
3.1 Research Philosophy
Research philosophy is a perspective on how to obtain analysis and use data on a phenomenon. There are generally four primary types of research philosophy such as interpretivism, positivism, pragmatism and realism. Positivism is a theory which is credible concerning almost any genuine information obtained by deeper analysis and sampling. The researchers' role is unbiasedly restricted to data mining and analysis in the light of positive study (Dougherty, Slevc and Grand, 2019). Interpretivism philosophy has often been identified as interpretive and requires university researchers to understand the aspects of the researchers, thereby integrating social commentaries into research. Therefore, Pragmatism as a philosophy is mainly used for mixed research methods. It mainly focuses on things that are typically practical. The realism approach is a theory-based evaluation that is designed to improve explanatory power and lead to research and planning based on proof (McLachlan, 2017). This method is generic and can be adapted to many research areas, including medicine and social care. For conducting the following study, realism philosophy was selected as the philosophy contributes to evidence-based practice and policy. The realism philosophy further helps in providing authenticity and appropriateness to the derived findings and makes the research reliable.
3.2 Research Approach
Research approaches are generally referred to the research plans and methods. This includes the method between general assumptions and comprehensive data collection, analysis and interpretation processes.Qualitative research is a way to explore and appreciate the significance of a social or human issue for individuals or groups (Greggs et al., 2019). The research approach includes new questions and procedures, standard data collected by the participant, an interpretation of the data encouraging them to draw on particular subjects and to interpret the importance of the results by the researcher. A versatile framework is included in the final written analysis. Therefore, it is further evidence that the research approach is further based on the nature of the research problem.In conducting the following research, the ethnographic approach was chosen. Anthropology is mainly concerned with the ethnographic method for the qualitative study. Ethnography involves the study of an entire culture. Ethnography is a very broad array of experts and processes (Monrouxe and Ajjawi, 2020). But participant-observation as part of field research is by far the most popular ethnographic method. As the active participant, the ethnographer is immersed in the culture, taking extensive field notes. As with grounded theory, in an ethnographic study, there is no preset limitation on what is observed.A qualitative procedure of many academic texts, books, documents and journals has been observed and thoroughly reviewed. The following research method is followed. Thus, the ethnographic approach has been chosen for the following study as the research involves participant observation through the conduct of the survey.
3.3 Research Design
The research design refers to the overall strategy for integrating the various study sections consistently and logically, meaning that the research problem is addressed effectively; it provides a plan for data collection, analysis and evaluation (Churchill, 2017). As the following research is conducted employing mixed methodology, the ethnographic research approach is selected for the participant observation through the conduction of the survey. The ethnographic model was generally selected for conducting the following research as the researcher has interacted with the study's participants through the conduction of the survey in the real-life environment.
Ethnography promotes a deeper understanding of the project problem, including the relevant field of use, the markets, the methods, the priorities and the background of use in the field of usability, user-centred design and service design (Monrouxe and Ajjawi, 2020). In a functionality project, the goal of an ethnographic study is to get 'under the skin' (and all its relevant issues). It is anticipated that a designer can really grasp the problem and thus develop a much better approach by achieving this.The ethnographic study does have one of the big benefits of being able to help to evaluate and assess unforeseeable problems. It can be very easy to miss out on unforeseen problems when performing another kind of studies which are not in-situ observation or participation.
3.4 Research Sampling
The main objective of this research is to examine or assess the findings and challenges to the successful solution of knowledge via an exhaustive analysis. The research is a thorough review to find significant implications and to solve problems. In several manuals, different posts, blogs, journals, related magazines, PDFs and numerical assessment records were then gathered for the analysis and the evidence (Clark and Vealé, 2018). Therefore, a structured survey among 29 participants was conducted for deriving outcomes of the research. Therefore, the structured survey generally helps in getting accurate results that in turn provides authenticity to the entire research. However, sections of research samples have been used to explain and concentrate on the proposed inquiry, which would examine mostly different countries and their related findings. To fully reflect the framework of the report, the data obtained during the analysis was analysed in an optimized manner. During the assessment process, the collection of information and data was difficult and the analysis of the results was critical. The study examined the selection and processing of the sample, in particular, to ensure that the chosen sample allows for a broader scope for the test report.
3.5 Data Collection Process
In the study, the method of data collection with appropriate facts and information was used in a solitary process. Fundamental research was carried out to analyse the real characteristics of data processing to evaluate the qualitative interpretation of the results. Data were therefore collected primarily from secondary sources such as papers, journals, PDFs, etc (Clark and Vealé, 2018). Furthermore, 29 respondents conducted an inquiry to get relevant information about the subject.The sources were inspected and analysed according to several criteria to determine the integrity of the reports. The data analysis demonstrates the potential effects of psychological security and the improvements caused by organisational structures. The qualitative results were analysed in the study, however, using sustainable practices.To fully illustrate the report's framework, the data obtained for review should be interpreted accurately. During the testing process, the collection of information and observations was difficult and the interpretation of the results was essential.
3.6 Data Analysis Technique
For qualitative analysis, the data analyses approach has been used in the research study. The data gathered was further divided into semi-themes and subsets in this research study. The analysis of the data is usually carried out in research to improve the evidence and knowledge obtained and thus leads to the development of reliable results. There are typically two methods used for the data analysis, namely content analysis and narrative analysis (Gibson and O’Connor, 2017). The data analytics approach also helps to arrange information and data gathered from different sources and helps to organise data to meet the analysis objective. The approach of content analysis is typically used to analyse data gathered from accurate sources while the approach of narrative analysis is used to analyse quantitative data. As the research is conducted using the mixed methodology, content analysis and narrative analysis both were used for the refining and analysis of the collected information. The data analysis procedure also helps to ensure that the systems collected from additional sources are strongly linked with the research goals and strategies points.
3.7 Ethical Consideration
Research ethics typically refers to the feature of defining research frameworks and procedures by following specific standards and qualities. There are various ethical guidelines for completing the study and, generally, research ethics are referred to as a set of standards and practices that are usually used to achieve the research objective of the research (Roth and von Unger, 2018). Therefore,while conducting the research the safety and security of the respondents were highly ensured as per the principles of the research standard. The main objective of this ethical analysis is to ensure that ethical dimensions of the work are understood when developing and preparing guidelines. The measurement and amount of evidence is also the most important area of ethical issues to determine ethical values for science. The study is usually underpinned by two formal ethical principles or criteria, Agreement and safety.Primary ethical guidance was regarded as the availability of confidentiality and sufficient protection for data collection and compilation processes (Hesseet al., 2019). The possibility of a malfunction in the analysis, the data from validated scientific sources of which is required, is knowledge. Thus, the analysis provided a variety of requirements and principles to evaluate the importance of psychological protection in business management consultants. All the necessary precautions were undertaken while researching as per the ethical guidelines and principles of research.
Chapter 4: Findings
For deriving the outcomes of the research generally, a survey was conducted among 29 participants to evaluate the effect of psychological safety within teams. For conducting the survey generally, eight questions were asked to the respondent to assess the impact of psychological safety within a team in the anonymous organisation. The results of the survey are listed below.
The first question was typically asked about when mistakes are held in an organisation, it is generally aimed at the respondent. In response to this question, it was evident that 18% strongly agreed, 25% agreed that they are held responsible for the mistake, 29% were neutral to this question, 21% disagreed and 7% strongly disagreed concerning this question.
The second question was asked to get the results of rejection due to the difference in attitude and culture among the team members. Therefore, the result was obtained that none of them strongly agreed, 24% agreed, 28% remained neutral to this question, 24% of the respondents further disagreed as well as 24% strongly disagreed to this question.
The third question was asked to the respondents regarding safety in the undertaking of risk in the team. In response to this question, it was generally found that 11% strongly agreed to the question on taking the risk is safe in their team, 50% agreed, 28% remained neutral to this question, 11% disagreed and null of them strongly disagreed.
The fourth question was asked to the respondents regarding the value and utilisation of skills and talents while working with the team members. It was generally found that 30% of the respondents strongly agreed to this question, 45% agreed, 7% remained neutral to this question, 11% disagreed and none of them strongly disagreed.
The fifth question was asked concerning the ways and approaches to improve the team’s work progress as team members. In response to this question, it was generally found that 35% strongly agreed to this question, 41 % agreed, 10% remained neutral to this question, 10% disagreed and the rest 1 % strongly disagreed in response to the question.
The next question was asked to the respondent regarding the discussion of the mistakes and the ways to prevent the mistakes in the team. 28% of the respondents strongly agreed that they discuss the mistakes and learn them from the team, 55% strongly agreed to this question, 10% remained neutral, 4% disagreed to the question and the rest 3% strongly disagreed.
The next question was asked about how the teams handle conflicts and variations of privately or offline. In response to this question, it was generally found 11% strongly agreed to this question, 50% agreed to this question, 28% remained neutral to this question, 11% disagreed to this question and null of them strongly disagreed to this question.
The final question was asked regarding obtaining new information that leads the team to, make significant changes in the plans or work processes. In response to this question, it was generally found that 17% strongly agreed to this question, 52% agreed to this question, 14% remained neutral to this question, 17% disagreed and none of them strongly disagreed concerning this question.
4.2 Qualitative Analysis
1. The link between Psychological safety and employee engagement:
There are close relations to employee involvement in psychological safety. Kahn described personal involvement as to how people merely take up their positions, not just at the Office. Consequently, truly dedicated workers are not only pleasant to help in extra-roles but also to get interested in any aspect of their work (Basit, 2017). They keep their heads "in the game," Kahn says. By disengaging workers they do not put a lot of work into their jobs and may appear to be "burned out," even rugged in their actions. Kahn found disengagement and psychological safety to be connected in several main fields in his observational studies; relationships, management style and organisational norms.In the interviews and findings of Kahn, he concluded that psychological stability was the consequence of relationships of encouragement that fostered experimentation.
This implies that people will seek to do their jobs in various ways or even socialise without bad effects. Accordingly, trust is an essential element in psychological safety partnerships. Kahn considered ties among different levels of organisational hierarchy less safe than those carried out at the same level (Newman, Donohue and Eva, 2017). It must be noted. Even if it isn't shocking, managers certainly know this.The hierarchical nature of these relationships can help companies less comfortable in management team relations, thus creating a trustworthy and supportive environment is worthwhile. Employees in subordinate management relations can feel less comfortable purely due to the hierarchical nature of these relations, and thus a secure and welcoming environment needs to be established. Workers also feel better in resilient relations with their bosses who can bounce off problems or failures, and workers want to liberate themselves from the fear that an error will harm them.A positive work environment is essential to stimulate high performance and commitment and also input energy, productive relationships and rewards.
A healthy mental and emotional state generates confidence, participation, belonging, excitement, trust and inspiration that make it easier, inspired, consistent and comfortable for employees to work. Higher levels of psychological safety contribute to employees being better at risk and functioning. This might take some pause, as there certainly should be a constraint to how much people can communicate while staying professional (Wang, Liu and Zhu, 2018). Kahn found that psychologically more secure individuals appeared to work closer incorporate and position expectations than those with lower levels of psychological safety and thus involvement. Like commitment, psychological safety is an important organisational term that deserves its focus.
Employees with high standards of psychological safety prefer to speak, express opinions and function. Those with less psychological safety appear to feel a need to "defend" them and may maintain their own opinions. If people feel safe at work, they will not have to rely on one as much as they do in a team first. Psychological safety is linked to a series of outcomes at work, including innovation, sharing of knowledge, the divergence of thought and even business performance.If employees feel that their workplace is psychologically safe, they can take action, work and ultimately experiment more efficiently. As organisational commitment teams are very well to drive business results, it is good for the safety and morals of workers and also great for business.
2. Consistent relations across studies:
Over the last two decades, the areas of management, organisational behaviour, social psychology and health care management were the focus of considerable interest and development of psychological safety. Empirical research evidence from numerous corporate and industrial contexts throughout countries and regions (e.g., the United States, Israel, Taiwan) supports the idea that psychological safety is of considerable importance to the productivity of the workplace and demonstrates a striking degree of generalisation of research results(Frazieret al., 2017). In particular, the analysis of the research led to at least three important insights.First of all, psychological safety has continuously played a role in enabling success in the various studies which looked at the relationship. This relationship between psychological safety and effectiveness is historically logical, particularly when creativity or teamwork is necessary for the work to be done. The need to cope with and overcome interpersonal threats without aspects of ambiguity or coordination is simply less prominent and the psychological safety presence should thus have less theoretical weight. Of course, this argument leads to the second viewpoint.
Secondly, psychological safety, as discussed, is critically important for understanding knowledge sharing, a statement that applies across research levels (individual, group, and organisation). Much learning throughout today's organisation may be limited by individual concerns about relational risks or consequences, such as the fear of not achieving one's goals and learning anxiety generated by the feelings of incompetence that occur during learning. In general, the research supports the idea that an environment of psychological safety will mitigate the interpersonal risks inherent in the system of learning (Agarwal and Farndale, 2017). People tend to offer thoughts, to accept mistakes, to ask for help or to provide input if they are convinced that it is safe. Psychological safety is likely to remain a critical aspect for learning and achievement well into the future with increasing interpersonal ties and complex interconnections in the workplace. In reality (especially at group level) the common findings of large numbers of studies reviewed reliably relate to the relationship between psychological safety and learning.
Third, studies show that people with better security are more willing to chat at work. Up-to-date interaction can play an essential role in assisting modern organisations, in which employees can question the status quo by communicating to others who inhabit posts for decisions, identify issues or changes, and offer recommendations to enhance well being of their organisations. However, extensive research has also shown that voice can sound risky in these situations. Psychological safety research, therefore, shows that this hazard can be counterbalanced.
3. Similarities and Differences across levels of analysis:
In general, the links between key results and analytical levels are striking. More particularly, learning at all three levels is associated with psychological safety. Psychological safety interactions are argued that are fundamental in facilitating habits that are essential to learn and change, be it an individual, a team or a business that must be modified (Basit, 2017). Indeed, this relationship is at the root of why over the years the framework has held a high focus on research; it is because of the importance of learning in a diverse and fast-evolving environment. The focus to output as a dependent variable is another cohesion across stages.Apart from the study at the individual level which has been noted, there are clear and significant links among psychological safety and success both at organisational and group level, byways of aggregating data. Conceptual and empirical ties to social learning processes are also stressed. A focus on results related not just to success, but also to growth and satisfaction, is a distinction compared to those two on the individual level.
Finally, although similarities play a significant role at all stages, only group research specifically argues that the group is the appropriate level of study for the conceptualization and the measurement of psychological safety. Starting from Edmondson (1999), the psychological safety of individuals within organisations has statistical significant differed; that is, those who work together have similar perceptions of psychological safety, which may vary through one organisation to another (Newman, Donohue and Eva, 2017). This work supports the idea that psychological safety in organisational behaviour is best viewed as a result of the group.
Chapter 5: Discussion
The research paper is concentrated on conducting a study on “psychological safety within teams”. The entire research has established the fact that psychological safety among employees is a kind of shared belief within an organisation that the workplace where they work is safe for taking interpersonal risks as a group. The research aims to evaluate the importance of psychological safety within the teams of Anonymous, a management consulting firm in Bangalore of India, which is headquartered in Chicago of the US. To reach this aim of the research, a bunch of objectives has been set and a survey of eight questions has been conducted among 29 employees of that consulting firm. The collected data has been analysed following the mixed approach of research methodology. The quantitative approach was needed for the analysis of the data collected from the survey as it gives a numerical data.
The entire research study through quantitative and qualitative methodology has attempted to provide an answer to four questions that will lead to meet the research objectives. From the survey, it is prominent that employees of the management consulting firm want to communicate about the notion of psychological safety in their organisation. A considerable portion of the staff-members has denied to answer some of the questions and decided to stay neutral. This addresses the second research question and points out to the feeling of the absence of feeling of safety among the employees as they are unsure of the consequence if their answer is held against the organisation. As per Rohet al. (2018), this lack of confidence towards the management is a gradual process of losing commitment among employees for the organisation, which eventually leads to the decrease in profitability of the company. From the qualitative study, we have comprehended that every employee within a team is different from another and it is important for the organisation to analyse each of them with a different approach to know them (Basit, 2017). This concern addresses the first research question. Anonymous seems to support people of different culture and personality. It is intriguing to find out that most of the employees consider that different cultures of the attitude of each employee or accidental mistakes are held against the organisation and in most of the cases of mistakes, the organisation usually aim at the employees.
However, Anonymous has established an environment where employees feel safe to take risk while working in a team. This fact is evident from the survey as very few of the employees have disagreed about the organisation being unsafe for the staffs to take a risk and think of new ideas. As per (Baer and Frese, 2003), an organisation must provide such an emotional safety to the organisation for maintaining the innovative notion in the operations of the business and the service or products they offer to the customers. As for Anonymous, the overall survey data demonstrates that the organisation has maintained a psychologically safe environment for the workers to take risks, think about new ideas and hold a strong sense of commitment towards the firm.Based on the data collected during qualitative research, it can be said that when employees feel safe about suggesting new ideas with other teammembers, they feel more engaged in the work and thus stay committed towards the organisation.
Besides, most of the respondents have agreed to the fact that the organisation value their skills and talents during team-work and properly utilise these skills to gain the best outcome of a project. The survey data attests to this fact that less than one-fourth of the total employee-base have disagreed or stayed neutral while answering the existence of this notion in the management of the company, as well as the organisational approaches for employee-improvement.Kahn (1990) has opined that the belief among employees regarding the steps taken by the organisation in their development and welfare strengthens engagement in organisational activities, which addresses the third question. Alongside, Anonymous has also gained positive response from their employees regarding the ways the organisation adopt approaches for improvement of the team members. This step is generally taken by the organisation for the progress of the tasks performed during a project.Furthermore, the organisation keeps its environment suitable and trustworthy for the employees to discuss the mistakes and the ways of prevention of these mistakes during teamwork.Based on the opinion of Delizonna(2017), as the team-members in Anonymouscan discuss their mistakes without fearing the consequence and get help regarding how to avoid such mistakes in future, the company is successful in setting a psychologically safe workplace.
Anonymousis seen to enable the teams to handle different conflicts and variations within the team privately or offline since more than half of the employees agreed to the query about the organisational approach in the management of conflicts within the team. If the management is not collaborative with the team, it becomes impossible for them to resolve the issues that arise among the team members while conducting a project (Bradleyetal., 2012). The existence of such problem-solving approaches within the organisation’s team addresses the fourth question. What is simultaneously important for an organisation in gaining the most productive outcome from the team is to provide all the necessary information for the members to lead the team towards success and make changes in the plans or process of work if needed. It is evident from the survey data that the employees of this organisation mostly agreed to the fact that the organisation is supportive enough for the employees to gain new information which helps in developing their skills and talents that ultimately serves in the enhancement of the productivity and profitability of the company. It also aligns with the data collected through quantitative approach, which established the fact that psychologically safe environment is crucial for the comprehension of sharing of such knowledge and this importance is discussed across all the research studies like organisational behaviour, management, health care management and social studies.
This current chapter has evaluated all the data collected through the mixed methodology and described in the previous chapter. The survey of eight questions among 29 employees led to the analysis of data which addressed each of the four research questions. The thematic analysis through a qualitative approach during the research has been thoroughly assessed and talked about in this chapter where necessary and applicable. The overall discussion from both these data has led to the establishment of the fact that if employees feel safe within an organisational setting about their psychological state and if the management of the organisation is collaborative within teamwork, allows the employees to take risks and does not hold unintentional mistakes of the employees against the organisation, it increases confidence among the team members and evokes their creativity, and the decision-making and problem solving becomes easy and more acceptable.The discussion has further shown that the management consulting firm, Anonymous, has provided a suitable environment for their employees on average, though some of the respondents of the survey felt unsure of the consequence of their answer and chose to remain neutral about some queries, which makes a hint that some employees feel the absence of the assurance that the organisation is flexible towards accepting feedback from its staffmembers.
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendation
This particular research paper has introduced the importance of psychological safety in the organizational context. It is a crucial factor for every organizational workplace. Psychological safety is important for employees in an organization. This research has evaluated that there have to be some fundamental aspects which are important to maintaining the psychological safety of employees in their profession. In the other, there are several challenging issues due to the proper implementation regarding the psychological safety in the team in their workplace. This research paper has executed a survey of the 29 participants. From this survey, it has cleared that most of the organizations are concerned about the psychological safety of employees. The survey has specified that most of the employees are satisfied regarding their psychological safety in their workplace. The organizations are promoted the adequate level of agenda to employees which has healthy and good ramifications among the employees. In the other hand, it has also cleared from the survey that some of them strongly disagree about the adequate agenda in the work process.
In that case, there have to require something more eloquent agenda which is giving the proper mental satisfaction to employees. In any kind of team-working proper psychological satisfaction is important. Without proper psychological satisfaction of employees, the culture of the company is not going through a pleasant journey. This research has also inserted the qualitative analysis; by evaluating several journals and articles, it has proved that psychological safety has a pivotal role in every organizational context regarding the engagement of employees. From this research analytical part, it is also revealed that psychological satisfaction. The mental satisfaction of employees in a workplace is important which motivates the employees and maintain the healthy environment of the organization. Additionally, this research paper has formed specifically the link between psychological safety and employee engagement. From this particular matter, it has proved that the relation among the employee engagement and psychological safety is potential. For the employees engaged in an organizational workplace, psychological safety works as a pivotal role.
On the other hand, this research paper has also evaluated the implication of unhealthy psychological environment on the employees in the company context. It has shown that the bad impression from the organizational context has wide ramifications among the employees due to their working procedure. Workers feel uneasy and not satisfied due to their organizational functions. In that case, a positive work environment is a necessary approach for the employees who have proved in this research paper. Healthy and good mental condition is crucial for employees in their workplace. In this research paper, the management consulting firms have to be promoted the effective healthy atmosphere for employees which are beneficial for build the psychological safety of employee team. At last, it has specified from this research paper that, psychological safety is crucial for workers.
6.2 Recommendation for possible courses of actions
In an organization to maintain physiological safety, the organizations have to maintain several helpful factors. Under the operational procedure, the organizations have to promote healthy conflict among the employees. The healthy conflict among the employees is helping to maintain mental satisfaction. In the other hand, the organizations should be given prominent advantages regarding their opinion. The organizations have to permit the opinion of the employees which reflects the personal perspectives of them which build mental satisfaction (Pipas, 2020). To regulate the physiological safety of the employees in their workplace the organizations have to extend their trust issues on them. If the organizations have enough trust in them and they have enough faith in their employees then it is beneficial for employees due to their physiological safety. The trust brings the bride between the organizations and their employee that is helpful reflects the sense about the employee's mental satisfaction.
The organizations have to concerns about the effectiveness not only efficiency. The management of the organization has to play an important role in eating a safe and healthy work environment not only try to achieve business outcomes. The healthy and good atmosphere of the workplace is helpful to build the healthy and good physiological mentality of employees about their workplace. Additionally, the organizations must give them the commitment to their works due to their organizational work(Al Zefeitiand Mohamad, 2017). The commitment of the organization is helping to build the enthusiasm of employees which has a great ramification on them about physiological stability. In the other hand, the organizational authority has to think their operational activities uniquely. The innovation in their operation impressed employees in the organizational context. This is also an effective cause which provides mental satisfaction among employees regarding their organizational operational process.
Additionally, the organizations have to break sometimes their strict rules regarding their employees. Sometimes, flexibility is important in the organizational context which helps to build a healthy and good environment. This is helping to form a healthy physiological mentality of employees in the organizational entity. These areas should be maintained by the organizations' authority to form a healthy and prominent physiological atmosphere of employees in their workplace. In that way, the management consulting firm has to provide these areas which are fruitful for to maintain the physiological safety of employees in the context of the organization(Osborne and Hammoud, 2017)
6.3 Research limitations
During the research on that particular topic, there are faced some limitations. In this research, the survey question was not possible to hold every person on that particular topic. It is not possible to hold this survey beyond the permission of respondents. In the stage of the sample collection, it is not possible to get all kind of prominent data and information regarding the topic. This topic also cannot able to collect the proper sign of the matter of disengagement during the period of research.
6.4 Future Scopes
This particular research topic has evaluated the formative aspects of organizations due to the matter of employees. In that case, this research has critically reflected the approaches regarding the matter of engaging factors but due to this matter the matter of disengagement. For future research in this particular topic, the informative part about the disengagement has to implement to evaluate the entire matter more precisely. The matter of disengagement will help to recognize the effectiveness of the measures taken by the organization for employees regarding psychologicalsafety. In the other hand, for the future research collection of more data and information regarding the topic will give more advantage to the future researchers to examine the entire topic through more depth.
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