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Economics Assignment: Critical Discussion On Conservation & Biodiversity


Task: This economics assignment consisted of TWO questions. You should answer ALL questions.
Question 1

Two students are discussing the “origin” of the concept of conservation. Student A says that “Conservation is not new, and is not a Western concept only”. Student B adds that “Conservation has many origins”. In 800 words, compose a short essay in which you discuss these statements and make it clear whether you agree or disagree with the viewpoint expressed in the above discussion. In your essay, you should give a brief introduction on the definition and development of conservation. Your essay should be well structured and well supported with suitable references.

Question 2
Some people argue that Fung Shui Woods in Hong Kong are “artificial” and claim that we should not conserve these habitats since they are not “natural habitats”.

In 800 words, compose a short essay in which you discuss this statement and make it clear whether you agree or disagree with the viewpoint expressed above. In your essay, you should include a brief introduction on Fung Shui Woods, and their cultural and/or ecological functions. Your essay should be well structured and well supported with suitable references.


Economics AssignmentQuestion 1

Conservation is defined as the philosophy of managing the environment in such a manner that it does not despoil, extinguish or exhaust. Conservation at the same time is effective in developing protection measures for the wildlife from irreversible harm. Conservation is not a new concept and has been adopted by the people to maintaineconomicstability within the surrounding. The concept of conservation is determined to have numerous origins that are effective in developing the natural ecosystem diversity. The careful use of natural resources is alsoconsidered to be an essentialprocess of conserving the environment as well as biodiversity. The essay argues the facts that are in support of the discussion using the critical evaluation in a coherent manner.

Russelland Stanley (2018) mentioned that conservation is about saving biodiversity. The economy is the major concern for sustainable developments. The measures of conservation are focusing the conservation of the plants. It has been evident that the economic impact of biodiversity loss is spectacular manner. It is argued by different authors that the conceptsof conservation are not new. Moon et al.(2019) mentioned that the ideas of conservation are reflected in the ancient civilization as well. It is evident from the Old Testament of the bible that if any person comes across a bird that is sitting on the egg or the young ones. It is asked not to take the bird away from the young once. This learning from the bible reflects the concept of concertation even in ancient times (Du, 2020). In support of the fact that the concept of Conservation is not western. It has been mentioned by Sekhar et al. (2018) that an Indian Emperor Ashokarestricted the concepts of animal killing as well as the destructions of a forest. The idea of wildlife and ecology conservation is effective in developing the idea that the concept of conservation has been originated in the AsianIndian environment as well. The ideas of conservationare also an event from the history of China. The belief of Confucius’s that nature is ruling heaven and Earth. He even mentioned in his thought that the Earth is an ecological system and humans are the individual part of the entire ecosystem (Shuai, 2018).

Ibanga(2017) stated that in the writing of a famous philosopher Pluto, it has been evident that he was vocal about the loss of the attractive forest as well as the subsequentially erosion of the soil. Criticalevaluations from the writing of Pluto expresses the fact that the outcomes of destructive phenomena like deforestation as well as soil erosion are the outcome of the increasing human populations. Halbac-Cotoara-Zamfir et al.(2020) also presented their arguments that theconcern about the conservation of the land from desertification is evident in the case of Rome as well. In ancient times, theidea of conservation developed from cultural and regional factors. Caillon et al.(2017) argued that the cultural measures in Mauri culture are effective in conservation towards the measures like traditional conservation, which even existed 1000 years ago. At the same time, the Fung Shui woodlands are an outstanding example of economical conservation due to the existing cultural system. The numerous writings from the nature-loving poet William Wordsworth and Shelly have been presented that shows that measure like industrialization has a huge impact on natural stability, and the effects on the conservation of the pallet have been evident (Lindstrom, 2017).

Redfordand Adams (2021) mentioned that the historian of conservation had locked the fact that the idea of conserving the surroundings and ensuring that the stable living environmentis maintained in the primitive time. The idea of conservation is not merely a Western concept but has been evident in Asian cultures as well. The interconnectivity of the culture andconservation has been evident from the poems and writing of the ancient nodmedieval era. As evident in a very famous poem that Silent Spring, the adverse impacts of industrialization has been pointed out,ithas been vividlydescribed that the environmentconservation is creasing. Orford(2021), in support of the argument, mentioned that in the poem "Quiet Crisis”, Steward Udall has been oddly addressing the worsening of the environmental quality.

The evidence and argumentspresent in the essay are effective in portraying the fact that the origin of Conservationis mainly in the ancient era and was on the basis of cultural and regionalaspects. The needs and awareness of environmental conservation are reflected from the evidence like the writing of philosophers as well nature-loving poets. The vividdescription of nature and the concertation needs are portrayed. It is also valued that the concept of conservation has been evident in ancientIndian and Chinesehistory, and thus the fact that it is a Western concept is discarded. hence, it can be concluded that the use of the concept of conversation is evident from the origination of mankind. Thus, this aspect is not at all new. This argument presented by both the studentsare true in all respects.

Economics AssignmentQuestion 2

Fung Shui Woods in Hong Kong is also termed the Fengshui forests. It is one of the manifest community-based forests and is the forested patches that are cultivated by the Chinese Hakka villages on the basis of the traditional geomancy. As the local community has formulated a collective rule for the protection of such forests, it has been argued that the forest is artificially made, and thus the measures of conservation are not needed. The role of the formal and informal institutes is to work for the forestry resources that govern Hong Kong. The easy argues that the Fung Shui Woods in Hong Kong needs conservation by the authorities so that the forest can be preserved and thus measures can be taken for the conservation of the habitat.

Fung Shui Woods in Hong Kong and the rural settlement are considered to be an inseparable links. The distribution of the Fung Shui woods isdetermined toreflect the distribution as well as the general development of the villages. In the opinion of Denisov et al.(2020), the large Fung Shui is founded near the northeastern end of the new territory. The towing trees in the region are guiding the sunlight. The region has trees that are dated more than 300 years. The dense canopy trees are evident with dense. Diverse species of tresses are found in the region, and the erasures to conserve the area is a must for the people. Lai et al.(2018) argued that with the presence of the proper conservation measures, the Fung Shui woods are able to conserve a huge species of trees that are fast disappearing due tothe destruction of the habitat. It is evident that the Fung Shui Woods are generally limited in size, but with the implication of the proper conservation measures, the use of the preserved intact can provide food as well as shelter to many wild animalsand birds. Hau et al.(2018) mentioned that the canopies of the banyan trees are determinedfavorite places for the nesting sites for the birds.

Stanton et al.(2018) were in the view that the Fung Shui woods are one of the richest sights for flora and fauna. The unique features of ecological features are the outstanding example of the same native Hong Kong vegetations. The Fung Shui woods are recently is like a plant museum or the herbarium that is offering valuable resources for nature conservation as well as academic researchers. Lai et al.(2018) stated that the Fung Shui woods are acting as the channel of energy and are considered to be the reason for the prosperity of the village. The best-preservedwoods of Fung Shui in Hong Kong can be evident in the case of the Lai Chi Wo. It can be stated that the conservation of the Fung Shui woods isessential so that the native species of Flora and Fauna can be preserved. In recent times the reckless cutting of trees and events like soil erosion is creating a negative impact on the company. Hau et al.(2018) mentioned that the conservation of the forest land is essential so that the air quality, as well as the natural surroundings, can be sustained. As the statistics of the International Union for Conservation of Nature has outlined and there are many species which has been extinct or are on the verge of being extinct. The valuesof nature’sflora and faunaof regionalorigin are evident in Fung Shui woods, and thus it can be effectively mentioned that the area is in need of conservation despite being artificially developed. Yip (2018) mentioned that Fung Shui has both economic as well as cultural values. It is effective in developing the protection towards prevention from the landslides which are caused by typhoons. It is at the same time determined to be excellent in shades during the summers, they are also productive in blocking the cold north winds and thus are considered to be effective in providing ingredients for the herbal medicines as well as firewoods, The trees like endospermic as well as the schema are providing a richvariety of birds and insectslives. Hau et al.(2018) argued that it is a must to conserve the woods as it allows to keep the cultural values intact. It encourages people to protect the natural floraand fauna and therefore ensure that the diversity and the habitat of the artificially built habitat can be conserved. The conservation of Fung Shui woods is helpful in maintaining a green museum within the area that has a positive impact on the native people. Being home to exit species of plants and animals, it is essential to conserve the economy of the Fung Shui woods and therefore ensure that the areas are protected by local communities as well as the government authorizers. () stated that conservation measures are essential in the recent era of rapid urbanization. The local native is unable to develop measures in creating a collective regulation that could help the Fung Shui woods to concern its diversity and therefore reserve the species of flora and fauna from the threat of being extinct,

The presented arguments are considered to be helpful in understanding the fact that the woodland of Fung Shai is in need of conservation. Despitebeingartificially made by the local community, it serves all the characteristics of natural forested lands. Thus, the measures of consecration are a must to preserve the local species.

Reference List
Caillon, S., Cullman, G., Verschuuren, B. and Sterling, E.J., 2017. Moving beyond the human–nature dichotomy through biocultural approaches. Ecology and Society, 22(4).

Denisov, D., Zhuravleva, T., Zhuravlev, M. and Kabanova, E., 2020. Function-topological model of urban space sectoral zoning. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 164, p. 04016). EDP Sciences.
Du, J.X., 2020. Biblical Etymology of Earthly Branches and Jesus Christ.
Halbac-Cotoara-Zamfir, R., Smiraglia, D., Quaranta, G., Salvia, R., Salvati, L. and Giménez-Morera, A., 2020. Land degradation and mitigation policies in the Mediterranean region: a brief commentary. Sustainability, 12(20), p.8313. Hau, B.C.H., Lo, K.W.F. and So, K.Y.K., 2018. Living Water and Community Revitalization-An Agricultural-led Action, Engagement and Incubation Programme at Lai Chi Wo: Biodiversity Baseline and Management Plan of Freshwater and Terrestrial Habitats of Lai Chi Wo.
Ibanga, D.A., 2017. The concept of beauty in African philosophy. Africology: The Journal of Pan African Studies, 10(7). Lai, L.W., Chau, K.W., Chan, A. and Choy, L.H., 2018. Two dialogues on land readjustment in Hong Kong. Editorial Board, p.10.
Lai, L.W., Chau, K.W., Chan, A. and Choy, L.H., 2018. Two dialogues on land readjustment in Hong Kong. Editorial Board, p.10.

Lindstrom, E., 2017. Mourning Life: William Wordsworth and Percy Bysshe Shelley. Romanticism, 23(1), pp.38-52.
Moon, K., Adams, V.M. and Cooke, B., 2019. Shared personal reflections on the need to broaden the scope of conservation social science. Economics assignmentPeople and Nature, 1(4), pp.426-434.
Orford, A.D., 2021. The Creation of Enemies: Investigating Conservative Environmental Polarization, 1945-1981 (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley).
Redford, K.H. and Adams, W.M., 2021. Strange natures: Conservation in the era of synthetic biology. Yale University Press.
Russell, J.C. and Stanley, M.C., 2018. An overview of introduced predator management in inhabited landscapes. Pacific Conservation Biology, 24(4), pp.371-378.
Sekhar, C., Ganesan, V. and Baranidharan, K., 2018. Glimpses of Forest Conservation in Different Dynasties of India. International Journal of Horticulture, 8. Shuai, Y., 2018. Confucianism and ecological civilization: A Comparative Study. Culture Mandala, 12(2), p.5927. Stanton, D.J., Leven, M.R. and Hui, T.C.H., 2018. Distribution of Nanhaipotamonhongkongense (Shen, 1940)(Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae), a freshwater crab endemic to Hong Kong. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 10(1), pp.11156-11165. Yip, M., 2018. New Town Planning as Diplomatic Planning: Scalar Politics, British–Chinese Relations, and Hong Kong. Journal of Urban History, p.0096144220948813.


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