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Mechanical Engineering Assignment: Manufacture Composite Material using Powder Metallurgy


Task: Prepare a research report on mechanical engineering assignment critically exploring the manufacturing of ‘composite material’ by using ‘powder metallurgy’ with the components from ‘aluminum oxide’ and ‘silicon carbide’ to produce the Al 7075 matrix.


1. Introduction
1.1 Problem Statement

In the current project, the main goal is to prepare the 'Aluminum 7075' by making a composition between 'silicon carbide' and 'aluminum oxide' using 'powder metallurgy.' The 'powder metallurgy' helps in blending ‘powdered’ materials into the desired shape inside a mould. 'Aluminum 7075' is the Aluminum alloy with an alloying element, which is primarily zinc. This particular form of material has high strength and good 'resistance.' The production of 'powder metallurgy' is also a problematic process that has a significant environmental impact in transforming a 'liquid steel' into its final product or material[1]. The ‘composites’ of different materials can be obtained in two different categories – reinforcement and matrix.

In the current research process, ‘silicon carbide’ helps in reinforcing its components into making the Al 7075 to make the material less bendable and sustain its hardness. The contemporary ‘aluminum matrix’ composites primarily fabricated by implementing ‘graphene nanoplatelets’ (GNPs) and ‘silicon carbide’ (SiC)[2]. In the current project, the Al 7075 matrix has been reinforced with ‘aluminum oxide’ and ‘silicon carbide’ with the composites of ‘powder metallurgy’to test the new material for hardness in two different tests – ‘Brinell’s Hardness’ method and ‘Charpy’ impact test.

1.2 Aim and Objectives
The current project is aiming in specializing the manufacturing of ‘composite material’ by using ‘powder metallurgy’ with the components from ‘aluminum oxide’ and ‘silicon carbide’ to produce the Al 7075 matrix.

The current project has worked on evaluating the following objectives,

  • To achieve the usage Al 7075 in producing a lightweight material with utmost strength to the weight ratio
  • To understand the manufacturing of the material with high strength and lightweight factor by using different 'chemical' composition
  • To specify the underlying properties of reinforced materials, ‘aluminum oxide’ and ‘silicon carbide’ to conduct the effective composite with ‘powder metallurgy’ in preparing Al 7075

1.3 Research Boundaries
The different properties under the 'chemical' composition of Al 7075 are responsible for providing the hardness and reduce the weight of the manufactured material. It has been identified that the usage of different materials (compositions) in creating a specific material can enhance the strength, while less composition will reduce the hardness of Al 7075. The usage of only 'silicon carbide' can reduce the strength in making aluminum alloy material. In the current project, the cost is another boundary which restricted the project from using more than two reinforcement materials.

2. Literature Review
2.1 Literature Background Summary

Composite materials made from two or more combined materials. Separate components can make the material less sturdy whereas combined the components will make the material more strength and it will become light as well as cost-efficient. The “aluminum matrix” can help to make any kind of airplane structure or automobile mechanics. "Silicon Carbide (SIC)" with the "Al7075" makes the alloy lighter weighted as well as it will maintain the cost of the product. The combination of both components with the powder metallurgy method can make the process well-organized and effective.

2.2 Critical Discussion on Published Work
According to [3], the metal matrix is getting advanced day by day. It will help to change the "mechanical" part of the metal and developed a substitute metal that has high-density toughness. In this metal matrix "aluminum matrix composites" are becoming popular because of its less thickness and high stiffness. The aluminum matrix will be ideal for engineering “aerospace”, “military”, “automobiles” and “mineral processing” businesses. For the automobile industries "Silicon Carbide (SIC)” and “Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3)” are used. As well as the composites are also used for “drive shaft”, “diesel engine pistons” and “cylinder liners”. To decrease the chemical compatibility of “Alumina Matrix” the “SiC” has been used. The “Aluminum Metal Metrix composites” are helping to maintain the temperature of the construction.

According to [4], the "Aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMNCs)" are used for the advanced engineering process. It is generally used for creating any airplanes and used in automobile industries. It is also used for constructing any defense mechanism. The usage of nanoparticles with the "aluminum alloy matrix" makes the composite greater and the physical structure of the "nanoSiCp" makes the metal strong. Traditional "aluminum metal matrix" can make the alloys tough but the "SiCp" alloys make the process of construction easily and cost-effectively. It will be accessible with no trouble. It will make material strengthen.

According to [5], the composition of the metals can be used for creating any combined and solid particles. The properties of the composite will help to evolve the conduction, resist the scrape as well as it maintains the constancy of the material. The “Aluminum Matrix Composite” will help to construct any kind of space vehicle and the composite will make it durable and light-weighted. The composite will use in "powder metallurgy", "vacuum hot pressing" as well as in "co-spray disposition process". The composite with aluminum Metrix with the Silicon Carbide matrix can be used in the stir casting system. It will help to develop technology when building any kind of aircraft.

According to (Tripathy, Sarangi, and Panda, 2017), combining two or more materials that are not similar can be causing damage in producing any kind of automobile or aircraft. The composition of "SiCp" and "Al-Al2O3" with the "powder metallurgy" method has been used. The method will develop the processing system when engineering any mechanism. It will make the process well-organized as well as it makes the process dependable. Through the process quality of the product can be elevated.

According to (Sattari, Jahani, and Atrian, 2017), the usage of “Al7075" in the powder metallurgy method can make the process of the construction of any "marine", "military" and "aerospace" industries more reliable and cost-effective. The powder metallurgy makes the construction in lower compactness. The composite can make the density of the product more efficient. It also lowers the “thermal expansion” of the construction. It also maintains the toughness of the constructed products.

According to [8], there are also other forms of fabrication processes like "plasma spraying", "cold spraying" as well as "powder metallurgy". It is a traditional way to do the method. The combined composite can make the produced product more advanced. The Al alloy can make the strength of the construction sturdier. "Al 7075" is mainly used for the making of automobiles and aerospace because it has specific strengths. But the alloy has low surface properties. But with the combined with "SiCp” makes the alloy more durable and it will make the product improvement. The SiC nanoparticles can help to make the product light weighted and as well as it will make its product more solid.

Metallurgy Process in mechanical engineering assignment

Fig: Deposition method of the surface blind holes (Patil et al., 2019)

2.3 Relevance with the Current Project
From the literature review, we have gathered information about how the powder metallurgy method can help to combine the two or more components to make any kind of aircraft or automobile mechanism. The usage of powder metallurgy can make the process more efficient. The mixed components of "Al7075" with the "SiCp" can make the engineering of any product more reliable, sturdy, and less weighted. The composite can make the density of the product more efficient. The quality of the product will be improved by using the powder metallurgy method.

3. Methodology
3.1 Research Method Scope

The scope of the current project is to understand how the internal components of 'aluminum oxide' and 'silicon carbide' strengthen the components of Al 7075 in making the material hard with reduced weight. Al 7075 material is mainly used for manufacturing the aircraft parts, which needs to be of high strength and lightweight with an appropriate bendable process in making the parts effective. The improvement of the 'surface properties' is dependable on designing the internal components featuring various 'hybrid composites,' such as ‘aluminum,’‘silicon carbide,’ etcetera [9]. The reinforcement of ‘silicon carbide’ with ‘powder metallurgy’ helps in providing ‘mechanical strength.’

However, it is also a concerning factor that the ejection of 'SiC’ or ‘Al’ particle can reduce the ‘wear performance’ of the aluminum [9]. The ‘aluminum oxide’ (Al2O3) and ‘silicon carbide’ (SiC) proceed with the ‘powder metallurgy’ in ‘hybridization’ in the two reinforcements to improve the ‘hardness’ and ‘wear resistance’ of the following composites [10]. The research scope is in this project related to the ‘electron microscopy’ observation that can show an improved ‘interfacial’ bond in the reinforcement distribution and matrix [10]. In the current project, it can be observed that the increase of 'SiC’ can enhance the material hardness and also the ‘wear resistance’ at the aluminum components.

3.2 Research Method
The current project is based on the laboratory and research-based methodology that is comprising of two different examinations. The primary one is to understand the different components under the 'aluminum oxide' and 'silicon carbide' in a 'native research' process. Then the actual composite method will require the blending of these components in different levels to assess the most efficient Al 7075 material. The 'ceramic' composites in aluminum help in improving the 'chemical' and 'mechanical' (physical) properties of the 'aluminum matrix' reinforced with 'aluminum oxide.’ It provides a better 'tribological' property composition by developing the process with 'powder metallurgy' with the addition of 'molybdenum disulphide’ (MoS2) [11].

The secondary one is related to the effective analysis of existing research journals and articles to understand various components and composites method by using ‘SiC,’ ‘Al,’ and ‘powder metallurgy.’ The existing research paper has provided the information that the ‘powder metallurgy’ is one of the easiest and widespread techniques because of its 'intricate' shape with the appropriate size and it can be manufactured cost-effectively with 'high' production rate [12]. The analysis of relevant literature has provided various angles in developing the discussion of the current project systematically.

3.3 Data Documentation and Analysis
The documentation of data has been conducted systematically. It was started by understanding the application and underlying components of aluminum. It has been identified that aluminum contains a high 'electrical conductivity,' and its beneficial properties can be used as an increasing component of other devices. The beneficial components can be related to its 'corrosion resistance,' strength and lightweight, 'recyclability' and 'formability.' The underlying 'chemical' composition of Al 7075 are comprising of 'magnesium,' 'zinc,' 'copper,' 'silicon,' 'aluminum,' 'iron,' etcetera.

The main motive was to understand the weight and consistency of each element in Al 7075 and change the composition level of 'SiC’ and ‘Al2O3’ to strengthen the Al alloy material. The characterization of ‘hybrid’ composition, such as ‘SiC,’ ‘Al2O3,’ and ‘Gr’ through the implementation of ‘powder metallurgy’ helps in reinforcing various powdered particles scanning by the ‘electron microscope’ [13]. The analysis process will be related to mixing the 'SiC’ and ‘Al2O3' in different composition levels to assess the best form of Al 7075 material, which is both lightweight and comprises high strength.

3.4 Application of Mentioned Methods
It has been identified by the existing research journal and article analysis that the reinforcement method by the implementation of 'powder metallurgy.' It enables the methods to use the powdered form of different materials, such as 'aluminum alloy' powder can be used as a matrix material, 'titanium hybrid' powder used as a 'foaming' agent, and 'SiC’ particle used as a reinforcement material (which is required in the current project) [14]. In the current project, the reinforcement of ‘SiC’ and ‘Al2O3' through the 'powder metallurgy' technique can enhance the strengthening of the composition of Al 7075.

Al 7075 is an efficient material that is mainly used in the 'aviation' industry because of its lightweight and strong build. The ‘hybrid’ composites in Al 7075 material is dependable on its ‘wear performance’ or ‘wear behavior.’ The ‘aluminum composite materials’ (ACMs) is currently preferred widely in the application of various ‘advanced materials’ for their identified lower density and higher performance capacity [15]. The motive behind using ‘SiC' is to enhance the flexibility of material strength and 'aluminum oxide' as a reinforcement 'hybrid' composite by implementing the 'powder metallurgy' technique in testing the hardening methods.

4. Data Analysis and Results
To commence with the experiment, a thorough study of the properties and characteristics of the materials is made. The chemical composition and the compatibility data of the materials used are also observed, mined, and noted for analysis. The data mined is given in the subsequent headings.

4.1 Data Consideration
Data to be considered for the Al-SiC alloying process are divided into 3 categories: Mechanical properties, Chemical compositions, and Testing process considerations. The following Data are considered for noting the mechanical properties,

  • Hardness - The resistance to the indentation on the surface of individual materials and the alloy is studied.
  • Machinability- The ease with which various machining processes are performed on individual materials and the alloy are studied.
  • Strength - Standard data regarding the individual material’s ability to endure failure or deformation under load is taken.
  • Toughness - The ability of the individual material and the alloy’s ability to deform plastically is noted.
  • Brittleness - The brittle nature of the individual materials and their alloys is noted.
  • Malleability - The individual material and the alloy’s ability to be pressed and drawn into sheets is taken into consideration.
  • Creep & Slip- The ease with which cracks and faults leading to failure is attracted by the material and alloy.
  • Resilience - The elastic ability of the individual materials and the alloy is checked under bending loads.
  • Fatigue - The stamina of the individual materials and its alloy is checked for the time and cycles before failure.
  • Workability- The ease with which the individual materials and its alloys can be worked upon is also noted.

The individual materials under study are Aluminium (Al 7075) and silicon carbide (SiC).

The alloy under study is: Al-SiC
The following Data are considered for noting the chemical properties,

  • Corrosivity- The corrosive natures of individual materials and the alloy is observed and noted.
  • Conductivity- The thermal and electrical conductivity of the individual materials and the alloy is taken.
  • Reactivity- Observations are made on how the alloy and the individual materials react to the environmental condition at the place and purpose of intended use.
  • Melting range- Since the melting points of the materials are different the alloy’s melting range is documented for various compositions.
  • Chemical stability- The individual materials and its alloys are tested for the level of neutrality towards acids and bases.
  • Thermal properties- The compatibility of thermal properties of individual material and the improvement of the alloy over it is checked for various compositions.

Tests are conducted separately for various compositions of the individual materials and the resulting alloys.

4.2 Data Gathering and Analysis Activity

  • Properties of materials
    To perform the analysis of the alloy the first step is to gather properties of individual materials to be alloyed. A datasheet of the materials under study is noted below:

Aluminum alloy (AL 7075)
AL 7075 is an alloy of various elements and is purpose-built for aircraft. The material is lightweight yet highly resilient and strong. It is also used in marine, automobile, and spacecraft. The material showcases very good ductility, toughness, hardness, strength, and resistance to wear and fatigue. There are various forms of the alloy such as 7075-0 which is an unheated and untreated form of the alloy. 7075-T6, 7075-T651, 7075-T7 is tempered forms of the alloy. 7075-RRA or the Retrogression and Reage tempered form of the alloy is a multi-stage heated form of the alloy. The study will be conducted on these forms of the alloy to figure out the best possible material for the maximum hardness.

The composition and material properties are given below:


Weight %



















Mechanical and Thermal properties




2.81 g/cc

Young’s modulus (E)

71.7 GPa

Tensile strength (?t)

572 MPa

Elongation (?) at break


Poisson's ratio (?)



87 HRB

Melting temperature (Tm)

477 °C

Thermal conductivity (k) 

196 W/m*K


Silicon carbide (SiC)
Silicon Carbide (SiC) is also called Carborundum. The natural form of SiC is extracted for a rare material called moissanite. Due to its immense sacristy, most SiC is made synthetically. The material is a natural abrasive and is mainly used in abrasive and cutting tools like sandpaper or grinder wheel. Silicones are ceramics ad are popularly known to have extremely good abrasion properties and hardness. It has a good electrical conductivity index and is often used in the semiconductor industry. One of the examples of its use is LED lights. Two major reasons to select this material as reinforcement are ease of access and hence the lower cost of material, and its hardness number. The composition and material properties are given below:



Weight %





Mechanical and Thermal Properties



Maximum service temperature



3.02 g/cc

Bending strength

250 MPa @ 20oC

280 MPa @ 1200oC

Thermal conductivity

45 W/m*K

Hardness - Rockwell

90 HRA

Tensile strength

1635 MPa (max)

Melting Temperature (Tm)


Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3)
Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) also known as alumina isthe most easily found form of aluminum. It is formed in nature in the form of a miner- Corundum and is used for the extraction of aluminum. It is known to be an electrical insulator and has a high thermal conductivity as compared to other ceramics. One of the popular uses of Al2O3 is in cutting tools manufacturing and making of few types of glass. It has wide use in the filtration of water from gaseous streams. The composition and material properties are given below,



Melting Temperature



3.69 g/cc

Fracture toughness


Poisson’s ratio


Thermal conductivity

12 W/m*K

Young’s modulus

215 GPa

Maximum service temperature

1100 oC


65 HRA

• Analysis of Data Hardness
According to a test conducted by Ravi (2017), AL 7075 alloy reinforced with SiC has shown an overall improvement in its properties. The following table shows the data recorded:

Test Samples





Yield Stress


Impact Strength


AL 7075





AL 7075+SiC





*converted from BHN

The table shows a visible improvement of the material quality due to the infusion of SiC. A point of concern remains as a decrease in the malleability and increase in the brittleness of the material. The brittleness is the result of the non-uniform distribution of the particles within the composite.

The impact of toughness also seems to increase with the process. A visible increment in the toughness is also seen due to SiC particles. According to Ozden et al. (2007), the presence of Silicon Carbide increases the impact absorbing properties of the alloy. Both studies show that temperature does not majorly affect the property distortion as much, but a change is seen at temperatures above the 100oC mark.

Infusion of AL 7075 with Sic increases its ability to withstand failure under various loads. The mechanical strength properties of the alloy increase with the proportional increase of SiC in the alloy. According to the tests done by Atrian et al. (2016), the ultimate strength of the SiC reinforced AL7075 increased by 300% from its base alloy.

The fracture toughness of the composite decreases with the increase in the SiC particles in the mixture. This is majorly due to the non-uniform distribution and increasing spaces between the particles in the composite. A study performed by Sijo & Jayadevan (2016) shows that the increasing amount of reinforcement particles increases the mechanical properties of the alloy but only to a limit. The study by the author also concludes that the powder metallurgy with stirring during the molten phase is the best process to get the optimal particle distribution and ease of performance. The powder metallurgy method of manufacturing also enables the manufacturer to provide a wide range and sizes of components.

According to the tests performed by Rajesh et al. (2019), Al7075/Al2O3 + SiC composite’s improvement in wearability is directly proportional to the weight percentage of reinforcements. The composite enhances the aluminum’s age-hardening properties and enables it to improve under load conditions. According to the author, the best results came with AL 7075 with 10wt% of Sic + 10 wt % Al2O3 has shown optimal wear resistance over the base alloy. The author concludes that the 10 %silicon carbides with 10% Aluminum oxide as the reinforcement improved age hardening, thus improving the alloy's tribological and mechanical properties.

Machinability and Workability
Adding of the SiC as the reinforcement time has shown promising results, by increasing the hardness of the resulting alloy. The increased hardness has resulted in a decrease in the Machinability of the output alloy. According to Sattari et al. (2017), milling and drilling operations cost more due to increased abrasive and hardness properties of the alloy, leading to faster tool wear. The author also stresses the increased time taken for milling operations. The gain in the thermal conductivity properties increases the thermal diffusion of heat at the source of the tool –specimen interaction.

Metallurgy Process in mechanical engineering assignment

Fig: Metallurgy Process

Powder metallurgy
The process chosen to experiment is called powder metallurgy. Powder metallurgy is the process of blending powdered materials and compacting it into a die of the desired shape. The die is then pressurized to compact the powder and sintered at high temperature to melt and blend it. This leads to the powder liquefying and forming into the shape of the die. There are 4 steps in the process:

1. Powder blending – mixing the powders
2. Compacting of powder- pressure forming the powder to compact it
3. Powder sintering – heating and melting the materials.
4. Finishing operations – the finished product is a solid alloy that is subjected to the machining process to gain a finished product.

4.3 Linking the Gained Results with the Research Objectives and Aim
The testes and studies performed in the above analyses show that the properties of AL7075 increase with exceptions of Machinability, workability, and brittleness. The main objective of the research was to find the improvement in the Hardness of the base allows with the addition of SiC/ Al2O3. The research shows positive results with the addition of the reinforcement agents and increases the hardness of the base alloy along with other mechanical properties.

4.4 Identification of Interim Learning Points and Milestones
The project has discussed the following interim learning points and milestones,

  • The SiC and Al-SiC composite has been done with the “thermal spray procedure”. The procedure can be developing the properties within the materials. “Al-ceramic” coatings can also helpful for resisting the rust in the materials. The improvement in the coating can be increase by the thermal spray.
  • The aluminum is the soft metal. With the hybrid matrix has increased the aerospace, automobile structures have also increased. It strengthens the property of the materials. The Aluminum Silicon Carbide can also available at the lowest cost. With the stir casting method, the performance of the materials can be increased.
  • “Aluminum metal composites (AMCs)” can be enhanced the physical as well as mechanical properties within the materials. The composite can be used for single strengthening and also for the crossbred supporting. The AMCs can also be used for the manufacture of aircraft and aviation businesses.
  • To improve the project with the aluminum the graphene can be combined to increase the performance of the material. With the stir casting method, the rigidity of the component can be enlarged. With the powder metallurgy method, the "Multi-walled carbon (MWNT) nanotube" can be used with graphene. The MWNT will rise the "tensile strength" while the graphene can maintain the stiffness and strength of the material.

4.5 Discussion on Additional Deliverables
The current project is based on changing the composition of Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) to strengthen the composition of the "AL7075". But other materials can be used to make the structure more robust and lighter weighted. The other materials are copper, chromium, magnesium, zinc, and titanium etcetera. These various materials can be mixed with various weighted[21]. It will make the components more well-structured and lighter weighted. The alloy of Al7075 can help to make any kind of aerospace, automobile, and aviation for its mechanical composition. The alloy has less thickness than other alloys. To make the composition more efficient other than "SiC", "Al2O3”, other components like “Gr”, “TiO2” and “bagasse ash” can be used to make the mechanical properties more robust. It will make significant development in the property as well as it will become rust resistance and cost-efficiency.Aluminum is the most strengthened materials that can be used. It can help to resist rust on the properties as well as it is strengthening the component of the product. With the hybrid composition of the “boron nitride” and “zirconium dioxide” the alloy can become more “wear resistance”. By increasing the resistance, it will reduce the usage of materials[22].

The “tensile strength” of the composition will also increase by using the components.Aluminum matrix composite can increase the strength of the material as well as it will become less light. If with the "Al7075" and "silicon carbide" the "Titanium Carbide" can be combined. It will increase the rust resistance of the material. The aluminum hybrid can increase the tensile strength of the material as well[23]. The usage of “Titanium Carbide” can make the alloy “low friction coefficient” as well as it will become conduct of high electricity. The “high wettability” of Titanium carbide can match with the aluminum alloy effortlessly. “Hybrid Aluminum matrix composite (HAMCs)" can be helpful to engineering any aerospace, automobile, or electronic industries for advanced mechanism. The hybrid components make the materials durable as well as the product becomes cost-effective. Other than powder metallurgy “stir-casting” is another method to combine the components. The “Al7075” and “Silicon carbide” can be mixed with the method.

The infusion of the components can be strengthening the material. As the aluminum 7075 has chosen as the base matrix because of its stretchable component as well as it is tough[24]. With the combination of boron carbide with aluminum, it will boost the inner properties of the material. Aluminum also "fly-ash" can be combined which will also increase the "mechanical stuff" within the properties because of the occurrence of SiO2, Al2O3, and TiO2. The boron carbide and aluminum are appropriate in 1100oC for the “wettability. To increase the “wettability” of the aluminum the “magnesium” and potassium hexafluoro titanate (K2TiF6) fluidity can be mixed at the same time[24]. The hybrid aluminum can be used which will increase the density of the property. But using another component other than Silicon carbide, make the composition stronger and more cost-effective. It will also intensify to prevent the rust effect.

5. Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion

The experimental process of ‘powder metallurgy’ in manufacturing the composites by blending different materials and form the desired shape into a mould. The ‘powder metallurgy’ process is primarily consisting of four different steps – blending of different materials in a powdered form, compact the assessed material powder into a mould or die, heating or 'sintering' compacted material powders, and repress the components to perform 'finishing' operation. The current project has emphasized on implementing the 'powder metallurgy' technique in combining the composition of 'silicon carbide' and 'aluminum oxide' in strengthening the Al 7075 material. The main motive behind this is to combine different material in forming a new material which contains more strengthening properties than the individual materials.

5.2 New Contribution
The current project is containing an extensive understanding of the composition analysis and implementation of different materials in building a single material with utmost strengthening power. The nano 'aluminum alloy,' which is prepared by 'combustion synthesis' can enhance the 'hardness value' through 'micro-hardness' tester [25]. The new contribution is related to the changes in different levels of composition between 'silicon carbide' and 'aluminum oxide' to harden the new material. In the contemporary analysis, 'magnesium' is primary used for achieving the 'constructional alloy' as light metal, because 'magnesium'-based component matrix is highly used in 'aerospace' and 'automobile' application[26]. However, in the current project, the main motive is to use ‘silicon carbide’ in enhancing the strengthening and reducing the weight of Al 7075 material. It will provide a new set of information and research factor to future researchers.

5.3 Recommendations
The potential recommendations for the future researchers in analyzing and researching with the composition of Al 7075 in enhancing the strength can be,

  • Experimenting the material composition by changing the underlying properties, such as ‘SiC’ and ‘Al2O3’ in different percentage to understand the most beneficial stage of the Al 7075 material
  • Implementation of 'powder metallurgy' is a widespread technique in the reinforcement of 'hybrid' materials by a highly productive process in a cost-efficient way. The current project needs to incorporate this process effectively.
  • In the reinforcement materials, the changes need to be dependable on the weight of each property in assessing the high functional state of Al 7075 material
  • The main motive of the current project is to provide efficiency in new-formed material by using different materials to work better than the individual components.

6. References
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[2] M. C. enel, M. Gürbüz, and E. Koc, “Fabrication and characterization of synergistic Al-SiC-GNPs hybrid composites,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 154, pp. 1–9, 2018.

[3] V. V. Vani and S. K. Chak, “The effect of process parameters in aluminum metal matrix composites with powder metallurgy,” Manuf. Rev., vol. 5, p. 7, 2018.

[4] A. P. Reddy, P. V. Krishna, R. N. Rao, and N. V Murthy, “Silicon carbide reinforced aluminium metal matrix nano composites-a review,” Mater. Today Proc., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 3959–3971, 2017.

[5] A. O. Inegbenebor, C. A. Bolu, P. O. Babalola, A. I. Inegbenebor, and O. S. I. Fayomi, “Aluminum silicon carbide particulate metal matrix composite development via stir casting processing,” Silicon, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 343–347, 2018.

[6] A. Tripathy, S. K. Sarangi, and R. K. Panda, “Fabrication of functionally graded composite material using powder metallurgy route: an overview,” IJMPERD, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 135–146, 2017.

[7] S. Sattari, M. Jahani, and A. Atrian, “Effect of volume fraction of reinforcement and milling time on physical and mechanical properties of Al7075–SiC composites fabricated by powder metallurgy method,” Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., vol. 56, no. 5–6, pp. 283–292, 2017.

[8] N. A. Patil, S. R. Pedapati, O. Bin Mamat, and A. M. Hidayat Syah Lubis, “Optimization of friction stir process parameters for enhancement in surface properties of Al 7075-SiC/Gr hybrid surface composites,” Coatings, vol. 9, no. 12, p. 830, 2019.

[9] J. Singh, “Fabrication characteristics and tribological behavior of Al/SiC/Gr hybrid aluminum matrix composites: A review,” Friction, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 191–207, 2016.

[10] M. Megahed, M. A. Attia, M. Abdelhameed, and A. G. El-Shafei, “Tribological characterization of hybrid metal matrix composites processed by powder metallurgy,” Acta Metall. Sin. (English Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 781–790, 2017.

[11] K. Kanthavel, K. R. Sumesh, and P. Saravanakumar, “Study of tribological properties on Al/Al2O3/MoS2 hybrid composite processed by powder metallurgy,” Alexandria Eng. J., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 13–17, 2016.

[12] M. Meignanamoorthy and M. Ravichandran, “Synthesis of metal matrix composites via powder metallurgy route: a review,” Mech. Mech. Eng., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 65–76, 2020.

[13] K. S. Prakash, P. Balasundar, S. Nagaraja, P. M. Gopal, and V. Kavimani, “Mechanical and wear behaviour of Mg–SiC–Gr hybrid composites,” J. Magnes. Alloy., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 197–206, 2016.

[14] A. Uzun, “Production of aluminium foams reinforced with silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes prepared by powder metallurgy method,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 172, pp. 206–217, 2019.

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