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Biology Assignment: Essay On Biopsychological Model Of Care


Biology Assignment Task: Write an essay on the topic: Biopsychosocial based health care better achieves “clinical assessment and diagnosis” compared to biomedical-only based health care.



As seen in this biology assignment, traditional health care practices focused on treating patients in terms of their medical and biological complications leading to illness, but several argumentized types of research have been carried out in the past years. In these researches, it has been explained that it is necessary to assess and focus on both social as well as psychological factors of an individual and illness in order to provide a better treatment and care environment. Often medical or biological treatment may serve as an ineffective treatment outcome for the patient due to having deprived social and psychological state of the patient (Aschwanden et al., 2021). Thus, focusing in which, the essay has been conducted where the biopsychological model of care will be assessed in order to evaluate the ineffectiveness of using only the biomedical model of health in terms of patient care. The case study of Maddie, who is a nurse, will be assessed to evaluate the psychological and behavioural response she reported due to her illness as well as the physical and social environment where she was treated.

Behavioural Response and Psychological Response:

After going through the video provided by Maddie on her experience through treatment and recovery against undiagnosed illnesses, it has been found that there were several behavioural and physiological responses that she provided against her illness as well as the physical and social environment she witnessed (Woods, 2022). Behavioural response to illness explains the behaviour that an individual delivers or witnesses when suffering from an underlying illness or the condition under which they are treated. It has been found that with the state of asymptomatic pneumonia, which was undiagnosed in the initial few days of suffering treatment in the case of Maddie, a wide range of behavioural responses was assessed (Treasure et al., 2020). One of the behavioural responses included deprived ability to eat as well as continued shivering. It was found that Maddie was witnessing high fever, chill, body pain, nausea and shaking which lead her to a state of critical illnesses. As she was admitted to the ER, so significant treatment was provided to her as no diagnostic tests were able to evaluate the reason behind her illnesses. This led Maddie to a state of losing hope and witnessing any change in her health (Woods, 2022). 

The psychological response of illness explains the common emotions that an individual witnesses in terms of their illness or the social and physical environment of treatment and recovery. It includes emotions such as depression, anger, shame, grief, anxiety and losing hope of living. It can depend on any aspect of illnesses such as the pain and suffering the emotional support they are provided with, the treatment and its outcome along with state of recovery (Chang et al., 2020). It was found in the case of Maddie that at the point when the ER was unable to detect the reason behind her illnesses as well as her health was getting deprived day by day due to ineffective treatment, she started feeling hopeless and depressed. Maddie was found to suffer from anxiety that she will never recover from her health condition. At a certain point, it was found that during intubation she was surrounded by a group of almost 50 people which developed a psychological impact on her as a patient (Woods, 2022). It has been generally stated that during intubation no more than 2 nurses or professionals must be within the room and the area must be kept vacant to maintain patient privacy and stability of health. As the health care facility in the area where Maddie was initially admitted did not have better facilities and she was diagnosed with asymptomatic pneumonia, it was necessary to transfer her to another advanced health care setting. Maddie was unable to breathe as her lungs were drowning and she was witnessing difficulty inhaling oxygen, thus she was recommended for intubation. During intubation, a wide range of people was there in the room to learn from the experience, assist her and see the entire process (Woods, 2022). This impacted her psychology as being a nurse she never saw such irrelevant and unethical procedures and being a patient, was suffocating and distressing. It is necessary that while providing treatment and care nurses a health care professional must not only focus on the physical health of the patient but should consider the social environment as well which might impact the psychology of the patient. The condition is well explained by the biopsychological model of care which will further be discussed below. 

The biopsychological model is known to be the philosophy to guiding clinical practice along with clinical care provided to a patient in need. It serves as a process of understanding and evaluating the impact of different factors from societal to molecular factors have on an individual’s state of illnesses, suffering and professional of disease (Frazier, 2020). it has been found that illness and suffering in the case of the patient are highly impacted by biological factors along with the suffering environment which accounts for the psychological and social aspect of illness, treatment a recovery. These factors are known to have a significant role in an individual experience, treatment, and clinical outcome (Dantas et al., 2020). Thus, it guides professionals to consider and proceed to their role along with physical, social and psychological factors of an illness as well as treatment. In the case of Maddie, it was found that the initial treatment that was provided to her during her suffering, admission to ER and the process of intubation was mainly focusing on the biological aspect of illnesses. The professional was focusing on the illness as well as the process of intubation but, no social and psychological factors were considered in their clinical practice (Vervoort et al., 2018). It developed as a state of distress and suffocation for Maddie which she can never forget and may have kept a mark on her psychological health. While in case of transfer to the better health care setting, it was found that Maddie was assisted by a nurse who was continuously talking to Maddie even when she was under anaesthesia and was partially conscious. The nurse reported that it is necessary for her to continue talking to the patient and encourage them despite the fact that they cannot hear or are unstable to evaluate the communication (Balint, 2018). It was found that in this aspect of treatment Maddie was assisted with proper biological along with the psychosocial factor of illness and treatment. The treatment and assistance that was followed in the clinical practice for Maddie in the ER explain the biomedical model of health. The biomedical model of health focuses on the physical and biological factors of illness despite following other social and environmental factors of disease (Giacaman, 2018). Health care professionals focus on assessing and diagnosing illness, analysing ncure and providing treatment to illness. While the biopsychological model of illness is provided by nurses and any other professional to provide both social and psychological care to illnesses (Brems & Griffiths, 2018). In the case of Maddie’s initial illnesses, the suffering, as well development of acute respiratory distress disorder was an outcome of involving the biomedical model of health in her care and clinical practice. While in the later process of care and treatment after transferring to the advanced health care facility and ICU was carried out using the biopsychological model of health. In this process, patient-centred care was involved where the family members, interaction and support patient were involved, proper psychological and physical assistance was provided to her. 

Thus, this evidence and findings from the experience of Maddie can be used in nursing practice in order to ensure that focusing on an illness and suffering of the patient biopsychological model of care must be provided (Woods, 2022). It is necessary that the patient is assisted with both physical, social as well as psychological factors for illnesses. It will help not only enhance the clinical practice but will also assist professionals to plan for a better treatment and care plan focusing on the psychosocial distress patient sustains due to illness as well as poor social and environmental stability. 


In order to thus conclude the essay, it can be stated that the experience Maddie sustained throughout her illnesses provided an overview of the negative aspects as well as a positive aspect of the clinical practice that was involved in her treatment. It helped in evaluating the significance of the biopsychological model of illnesses as well as its impact in ensuring better treatment and recovery for the patient. Also, the biomedical model of care was evaluated which helped in sustaining the knowledge about the negative impact that it had on Maddie’s treatment. It was thus assessed that treatment and care to illness must focus on the biology of the diseases, the physical, social as well as psychological factors. 


Aschwanden, D., Strickhouser, J. E., Sesker, A. A., Lee, J. H., Luchetti, M., Stephan, Y., ... & Terracciano, A. (2021). Psychological and behavioural responses to coronavirus disease 2019: The role of personality. European journal of personality35(1), 51-66.

Balint, E. (2018). Unconscious communication 1. In Parent-Infant Psychodynamics (pp. 153-161). Routledge.

Brems, S., & Griffiths, M. (2018). Health women’s way: Learning to listen. In The Health of women (pp. 255-274). Routledge.

Chang, C., Putukian, M., Aerni, G., Diamond, A., Hong, G., Ingram, Y., ... & Wolanin, A. (2020). Mental health issues and psychological factors in athletes: detection, management, effect on performance and prevention: American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Position Statement—Executive Summary. British journal of sports medicine54(4), 216-220.

Dantas, D. D. S., Correa, A. P., Buchalla, C. M., Castro, S. S. D., & Castaneda, L. (2020). Biopsychosocial model in health care: reflections in the production of functioning and disability data. Fisioterapia em Movimento33.

Frazier, L. D. (2020). The past, present, and future of the biopsychosocial model: A review of The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Disease: New philosophical and scientific developments by Derek Bolton and Grant Gillett. Biology assignment New Ideas in Psychology57, 100755.

Giacaman, R. (2018). Reframing public health in wartime: From the biomedical model to the “wounds inside”. Journal of Palestine Studies47(2), 9-27.

Treasure, J., Willmott, D., Ambwani, S., Cardi, V., Clark Bryan, D., Rowlands, K., & Schmidt, U. (2020). Cognitive interpersonal model for anorexia nervosa revisited: The perpetuating factors that contribute to the development of the severe and enduring illness. Journal of Clinical Medicine9(3), 630.

Vervoort, T., Karos, K., Trost, Z., & Prkachin, K. M. (Eds.). (2018). Social and interpersonal dynamics in pain: We don't suffer alone. Springer.

Woods, M. (2022). I WAS A PATIENT IN THE ICU FOR 9 DAYS | SHARING MY STORY [Video].; YouTube.


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