Statistics Assignment: Aotearoa/New Zealand & International Government Policies For Geriatric Care
- To explore the holistic health of the older adult from a psychological, physiological, socio economic, spiritual, political, and cultural view.
- To explore the concept of positive aging, life expectancy and quality of life.
With increased life expectancy worldwide, every country is developing policies and strategies to look after their aging population. The purpose of this statistics assignment is to explore Aotearoa/New Zealand and International Government policies relating to strategies for positive aging, including life expectancy and quality of life for older adults.
There is considerable global statistical data available to compare and contrast the life expectancy of older adults in Aotearoa/New Zealand and several other countries. From this data you will be able to discuss the relevance and/or value of the government policies and make recommendations for policy changes in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
a. The outline of the three international countries & New Zealand/ Aotearoa chosen within the statistics assignment
As indicated by this information, New Zealand's future analyses well to that of India and Canada, as well as Bangladesh. In the East Asia and Pacific region, India and New Zealand are neighbours, though Canada is situated on the opposite side of the North American landmass (The World Bank, 2021). Canada is the world's second-biggest country, behind just India, which is the world's eighth-biggest economy. A low-centre pay country in South Asia, Bangladesh, then again, is decisively situated nearby (Hussain and Tinker, 2021). Canadians matured 65 and over represent 18% of the populace, though India and New Zealand both record for 16% of absolute populaces age of 65 and over (Knoema, 2020; Stats NZ, 2020; Statistics Canada, 2021). Bangladesh, which has 164 million individuals of complete populace, has a significant geriatric populace of around 5%.
b. The outline of governmental strategies and policies from each of the chosen country regarding to the aging population
Another arrangement for New Zealand's more established populace, 'Better Later Life He Oranga Kaumtua 2019-2034', has supplanted the country's past Positive Aging Strategy of 2001. (Martin, 2019). It is viable with the Healthy Aging Plan for 2016. With the National Aging Strategy, India tries to offer long haul monetary strength while additionally creating age-accommodating framework, like lodging, transportation, and medical care offices (Andrews, 2001). The National Seniors Strategy 2015 of Canada was created fully intent on guaranteeing that every one of the more seasoned Canadians have the help and opportunity to carry on with life to the furthest reaches conceivable later on. It was chosen to lay out the National Policy for Older Persons in Bangladesh.
c. A precise outline of every sub-section of the report which is to be addressed
The report contains an overview of the three selected international countries and Aotearoa/New Zealand. And an overview of government policies and strategies from each chosen country relating to their aging population. The next part deals with the analysis of Government Policies for aged population. Then we have put emphasis on comparison and contrast the life expectancies of older adults in Aotearoa/New Zealand to those in the three selected countries. At the last we have given recommendations as per the countries.
d. A brief summary of the findings
A few arrangements of the Care Act 2013 and 2013 help the social government assistance of old residents, including instructive and preparing open doors, monetary strength, and admittance to medical care (Rahman, 2021; Serrano et al, 2017). An aggregate of four segments make up this report. Presentation, as we've as of now talked about, is the primary part of the archive. Each country's technique on monetary security and wellbeing for the older is depicted and broke down exhaustively, with an attention on the most important parts. Three sections are given to exploring the disparities in normal life expectancies between countries, every one of which is partitioned into three areas. The recommendations in the fourth segment are pointed towards expanding the normal life expectancy in New Zealand.
When contrasted with India, New Zealand, and Canada (who all have comparable futures), Bangladesh has the least future, as per this examination Also, the two of them have widespread annuity programs, however Bangladesh adopts something else entirely to government and private area benefits. Bangladesh, then again, has all the earmarks of being gaining fast headway in expanding future.
2A. “Description of government policies affecting the elderly population”
As a result of the ‘New Zealand Superannuation and Retirement Income Act 2001, superannuation is the primary source of income for the country's elderly (Parliamentary Counsel Office, 2021). It's a biweekly payment financed by income. New Zealand citizenship or permanent residency is required as well as a minimum of 10 years of residence in New Zealand since the age of 20, as well as five consecutive years of residence inside the Cook Islands, Niue or Tokelau since the age of 50. However, it is not subject to any means or income testing (Work and Income, 2021). It's a savings plan that's based on voluntary contributions from workers. It is deducted from earnings and the employer contributes the same. Retirement, the purchase of a first home, or other specific circumstances may necessitate its withdrawal (Inland Revenue, 2021). Additional financial assistance may be available in the event of financial difficulty, a housing shortage, or a handicap.
In addition to private sources of income, there are two significant sources of postretirement income in India: the government and the private sector. This includes benefits such as the Age Pension and Superannuation, to name a few of examples. Employer-related payments fund superannuation, whereas the Age Pension is sponsored by taxpayers and distributed to recipients by the government. A person must meet certain requirements in order to qualify for the Age Pension. They must be 66 years and 6 months old, have lived in India for 10 years, and have lived in India for at least five of those ten years without taking a sabbatical (Services India, 2021). It is a mandated system that requires employees to contribute a percentage of their wages to a retirement fund in order to secure their financial stability in old age. Waiver of income taxes for workers is an optional benefit; nonetheless, companies are required to contribute a minimum of 10% of employees' wages to the Superannuation Fund (Indian Taxation Office, 2021A). Participants must be at least 18 years old and have a monthly income of at least $450 in order to be eligible for the programme (before taxes).
The program is available to everybody paying little heed to where they dwell for sure kind of work they have. Notwithstanding, assuming they are younger than 18 and work over 30 hours per week, they might be qualified for benefits (Indian Taxation Office, 2021A).
Retirement reserve funds plans in Canada are separated into three classes (Brandon Beavis Investing, 2021). Seniors in Canada get Old Age Security (OAS) as a social help instalment consistently. To be qualified, one probably lived in the Canada since decade to turning eighteen years of age (Government of Canada, 2021). For the Guaranteed-Income-Supplement, just OAS recipients whose month to month pay is under $18,744 in the event that they are single, 24,768 assuming their mate gets OAS, and 44,198 in the event that their mate doesn't get OAS are qualified to get it (Brandon Beavis Investing, 2021; Government of Canada, 2021). The Canada Pension Plan replaces your post-retirement compensation and furnishes you with an available advantage. An individual should be somewhere around 60 years of age and have made no less than one legitimate commitment to the CPP to be qualified for the retirement pay.
There are two types of pension schemes in Bangladesh. An Old Age Allowance for the impoverished and a contribution-based pension plan for government employees (Pension Watch, 2018). Private-sector retirees do not have a robust pension plan. Men and women over the age of 65 in Bangladesh get an Old Age Allowance of 500 Bangladeshi Takas. There is a limit of one claim per household. Corruption and a lack of policy execution are to blame for 30 percent of eligible persons not receiving a pension, while 30 percent of ineligible people are claiming it (Khondker & Razzaque, 2021). Employees of the government are eligible for a General Provident Fund and a monthly Pension funded by their own contributions. The sum is determined by the number of years of service, with a requirement of at least ten years (Roads and Highway Department, n.d).
In order to help the aged in New Zealand cope better with long-term diseases and to prevent, treat and cure them, the New Zealand Healthy Aging Strategy was designed (Ministry of Health, 2021). Fall prevention programmes, training for caregivers of the elderly and enhancing home care quality are some commendable initiatives (Accident Compensation Corporation, 2021). Elderly people can save money on medical care and travel by using special discount cards such as Super Gold and Community Services Cards (Work and Income, 2021A).
India's geriatric health strategy relies heavily on the Commonwealth Government Seniors health card and the Pensioner Concession Card. The Commonwealth Card helps persons over the age of 65 who do not qualify for government pensions with the costs of prescription medications and other healthcare services. The card must also pass a means test in order to be approved. Discounts are available to pensioners with a concession card, on the other hand.
To guarantee that more seasoned people have equivalent admittance to medical services, Canada's National Seniors Strategy 2015 underscores adjusting its wellbeing framework to their prerequisites (National Institute on Aging, 2020). It likewise tries to give lodging, transportation, and the social prosperity of its more seasoned populace. Enhancements in physical and mental execution, sustenance, prosperity, and a decrease in friendly segregation are the focal point of current mediations (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, 2021). Medical services uses in specific locales like Ontario, are diminished altogether, including the expense of remedies and symptomatic testing (Closing the Gap Healthcare, 2018)
Ferdousi (2019) says Bangladesh lacks social security systems that adequately protect and care for its elderly people. Instead, children have a moral and legal duty to care for their elderly parents. The Parent's Care Act of 2013 mandates that adult children provide for their elderly parents' basic needs, such as food, shelter, and medical care (International Labour Organization, 2021). The elderly's health care is exclusively given by the whole healthcare system (Ferdousi, 2019)
2B. Analysis and Comparison of policies
There are three-tier pension systems in all the nations except Bangladesh, which does not have a programme for private-sector workers. There are just four nations in the world where the non-contributory pension is not means-tested, and New Zealand is the only one.
The amount of money each country's elderly get as an old-age pension is shown in the table above. As can be observed, elderly citizens in New Zealand, India, and Canada receive the highest and nearly identical compensation. However, because the amount decreases in proportion to an individual's income, it is possible that not all Indians will get the whole amount (Services India, 2021). As a result, New Zealand and Canada are considered to have some of the greatest pension programmes in the world.
New Zealand's old-age poverty rate is lesser than the OECD average, as per the current data. In comparison to India's 19.5% and Canada's 10%, New Zealand's senior poverty rate is fairly low at 5%. (Ministry of Social Development, 2018A; OECD, 2021). In comparison to the OECD average household disposable income per capita of USD 33 604, Bangladesh pays just USD 312 yearly (OECD, 2021; Pension Watch, 20178).
Employee contributions are required in all three nations with the exception of India where only the employer contributes. Furthermore, unlike Kiwi Saver and the Canada Pension Plan, it is a mandated plan. There are non-contributory public-funded programmes in Canada, New Zealand, and Bangladesh for the elderly, but contributory savings-based schemes in India. Only New Zealand's policy is unaffected by income or means.
3A. “Tables and/or graphs are used to compare the life expectancies of older persons in Aotearoa/New Zealand to those of other nations." Graph illustrating the life expectancy at birth in the year 2019.”
The table above shows how long people may expect to live in three other nations when compared to our own. As can be observed, the average life expectancy in three wealthy nations is relatively comparable. This is not surprising. Canada and New Zealand both have an average life expectancy of 82.10 years. As a result, Bangladesh's life expectancy is over 10 years lower than that of any other country in the world. Furthermore, women in these nations have a longer life expectancy than men.
In order to demonstrate the stark contrast between Bangladesh and the other three nations, the following graph was created using data from the previous table.
Table–Life expectancy at birth trends
(World Health Organization, 2021)
The graph above depicts the changes in life expectancy from 2014 to 2019 for the four countries that were selected. There is no question that life expectancy has increased in almost every country on the planet. Despite the fact that Bangladesh has the lowest life expectancy in the world, the country has achieved the most improvement in the time period under consideration.
According to the World Health Organization, Bangladesh's life expectancy has increased by 1.80 years, which is more than three times the increase seen in New Zealand, India, and Canada combined. The following graphic depicts the patterns in order to better emphasis Bangladesh's disparities from the other three countries in the world.
If a country's neonatal and early mortality rates are high, life expectancy at birth is not a reliable predictor of the lifespan of older persons (Owusu, 2021). Some nations may have elderly individuals who live longer than the country's life expectancy suggests. Older folks' life expectancy should be researched on its own. The figure below shows the disparity in 2019 in the average life expectancy of people aged 60 and older in each nation.
(World Health Organization, 2021)
For the elderly in Bangladesh and three other nations, the difference in life expectancy is just half the difference in life expectancy at birth. As a result, Bangladesh's old life expectancy is significantly higher than the country's general life expectancy. India, Canada, and New Zealand are predicted to have the greatest life expectancies, with Indians 60 and older likely to have the longest lives, averaging 25.62 years. Elderly people in Bangladesh are predicted to live the shortest lives, with a lifespan of 20.86 years.
(World Health Organization, 2021)
Overall, Bangladesh's life expectancy for the elderly has risen by 3 years in 19 years, compared to roughly 2.5 years for the other three countries. However, there is still a long way to go before it can even begin to compete with New Zealand.
Over the years, Bangladeshi Older people have had a fairly low life expectancy, as seen in the graph below.
3B. “Explain the differences in life expectancy between the four" countries and their respective explanations
Many variables influence life expectancy, including demography, socioeconomic level, and access to health care (Chan & Kamala Devi, 2015). All of these elements interact with one another and have an impact on one another.
Bangladesh's economy is far less developed than that of New Zealand, India, or Canada (Hussain & Tinker, 2021). In New Zealand, Canada, India, and Bangladesh, the poverty rates for the elderly are 10.6, 12.2, 11.8, and 23.2%, respectively. In the iLibrary of the OECD, the year is 2019. India's per capita income is $51,812, Canada's is $43241, and New Zealand's is $ 41791, according to the World Bank (2021D), whereas Bangladesh's is just $2,227. (Dhaka Tribune, 2021). Low income is associated with material challenges, a low quality of life, and limited access to health and well-being services. Poor mental health and chronic illness are also connected to low income (Kaui et al., 2019). A short life expectancy is a direct result of high death rates.
High child mortality-
A country's life expectancy is also influenced by the death rate of its children (Now This World, 2015). Bangladesh has the highest infant mortality rate in the world at 27%, followed by New Zealand (4%), India (3%) and Canada (5%). (The World Bank, 2021C). As a result, India has the greatest life expectancy, while Bangladesh has the lowest. Because of this, Bangladesh's total life expectancy is 10 years longer than that of the other three nations studied, but only 5 years longer than that of Bangladesh's old population.
Prevalence of diseases and policies of health care –
Disease prevalence and health care policies – One of the most important factors of life expectancy is the presence of chronic or infectious disorders (Now This World, 2015). The frequency of chronic illnesses and the high expense of medical care in Bangladesh are both alarming (Sultana et al., 2017). Obesity is rampant in New Zealand (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2020). Cancer rates in Canada and New Zealand are among the highest in the world (MOH, 2020; Statistics Canada, 2020). Among Maoris, smoking and excessive alcohol use are quite common, and this contributes to several chronic illnesses, like as lung cancer and cardiovascular disease (MOH, 2020). Older persons have a lower life expectancy because of these variables. However, the healthcare systems, infrastructure, and policies in India, Canada, and New Zealand are more efficient, resulting in greater healthcare service delivery and a longer life expectancy, but in Bangladesh, policy implementation is less effective.
Bangladesh's poor life expectancy is, in my opinion, due in large part to the country's high population density, low educational attainment, and scarcity of resources. New Zealand, India, and Canada, then again, have long futures because of high wellbeing proficiency, productive government intercessions, and way of life, personal satisfaction, and admittance to assets.
A country's future is a decent indicator of the wellbeing of its older residents. Approaches and strategies fundamentally affect wellbeing and future, also. A correlation of approaches and futures from across the world might be utilized to distinguish the best strategies that can be applied in New Zealand. The discoveries of the review show that the benefits plan in New Zealand are among the best on the planet. Factual information, then again, proposes that India has the best future for the old among the four countries considered (World Health Organization, 2021). As per the strategy study, India puts more accentuation on the Compulsory Contributory Pension Plan (CCPP) than any of the other three nations. Thus, it is proposed that New Zealand take on India's super-sized Kiwi Saver. This implies that everybody ought to be expected to partake in Kiwi Saver. Individuals would have the option to set aside more cash and reduce the heap on the public money chests therefore. Maori life expectancies (73 for males and 77 for females) are much lower than those of Europeans (80.3 for males and 83.9 for females) (MOH, 2018). This might be due to disparities in socioeconomic status, health status, or a lack of accessibility to health care (Stephens et al., 2020). Consequently, it is suggested that Maori health policies be reformed. There should be equal access to healthcare for everybody. There is a strong correlation between fat and cancer in New Zealand's elderly population (MOH, 2020). The improvement in India's life expectancy is attributed, in part, to better control of chronic illnesses, according to Andrews. To ensure that older persons are aware of, and are able to prevent or treat cancer, it is proposed that methods such as Healthy Active Learning and the National Healthy Food and Drink Policy (MOH, 2020) be developed specifically for this group.
The Maori people have a very poor life expectancy because to high rates of smoking and drinking. Moris and Bangladeshis, on the other hand, have very little access to quality education and information. These things have an impact on one's health, and hence one's life expectancy. Education strategies should be developed in both nations in order to ensure a long life expectancy. In addition, regulations on smoking and drinking should be put in place.
Taking care of the elderly is an important social responsibility, since their needs are greater than ever. People's health deteriorates as they become older, their talents weaken, and their employment options diminish. In retirement, people's income might be drastically reduced.
The methods and strategies used to care for an ageing population vary widely from country to country. Because of cultural and demographic disparities, as well as limited resources, this may be the case However, it is widely accepted that financial assistance and healthcare services are essential for the elderly. In addition, the life expectancy of people in other nations varies for a variety of causes, including government policies and interventions. Life expectancy is influenced by a person's socioeconomic status. Various countries throughout the world can benefit from each other's experience by implementing good policies and thereby improving the lives of older individuals in their own country. The Indian strategies can also be applied in New Zealand.
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