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## Renewable Energy Assignment: ION & BP Statistical Review

Question

Assignment A: Patterns of energy use
The purpose of this exercise is to analyse predictions made in the past about how energy sources would evolve to the present day, and compare these with what actually happened.

Table 1 provides information about energy projections made by Ion (1975) in 1975. An extract of his book, which includes this table, is available on Blackboard with the assignment brief.

The term ‘inexhaustible energies’ used here refers to what we would now call renewables, plus nuclear fusion which was expected to develop faster than it has (practical fusion generation is still several decades away).

For the current energy situation, refer to the BP (2019) Statistical Review of World Energy, which gives energy statistics for the year 2018.

The following tasks are to be written up in the form of a report.

Read the Ion (1975) document. Produce a comparison table and pie charts showing Ion’s predictions of primary energy sources (fuels) in 2020, and corresponding data from the BP Statistical Review of actual primary energy sources in 2018. Give units and ensure they are the same. State where exactly you took the information from in each source. You should not use any other sources.

Although the actual 2018 data is 2 years earlier than 2020, it is still reasonable to compare them in broad terms as energy use does not change very fast.

Using the table and charts you have produced, suggest reasons for differences and similarities between the predicted 2020 and actual 2018 data for the different types of fuel (note ‘fuel’ here includes hydro, nuclear and renewables). You may use relevant quotes from the two sources.

In particular, compare the broad definition of ‘Inexhaustibles’ used by Ion (see his text) with the current situation for different energy sources.

Summarise the main uses of oil, coal, nuclear, natural gas, solar and wind today, and why they are used in this way.

Suggest how an estimate could be made for actual use in 2020, by fuel, from information in the BP report, and assumptions involved. Hence, estimate actual use for 2020 for the fuel categories in the BP Statistical Review. Give the results in a table.

Executive summary:
Maintaining sustainability in case of using different energy sources is important for fulfilling demand of people throughout the world. The study constructed in the renewable energy assignment has made the analysis based on information of ION and BP statistical review for estimating the usage of 2020. The BP statistical report of 2019 has been considered in the renewable energy assignment to identify result of 2018.

Introduction
Maintaining sustainable usage of energy can help to make equilibrium between supply and demand. This is why different nations throughout the globe have focused on development of the use of renewable and non-renewable energy sources equally. According to Hussain et al., (2017), maintenance of equality in the use of resources would help to enhance sustainability in the energy usage process.  The current renewable energy assignment has focused on the data analysis regarding usage of energy sources considering data from ION and BP statistical review. Subsequently use of different resources has been identified and the estimation of 2020 has been made for identifying future use of different primary energy sources.

 Data From ION (1970)-Fuel Data From BP Statistical Review (2018) W. Europe 44% Europe 18.80% USA 21% USA 17.20% Japan 64% Middle East 48.30%

Table 1: Statistical Data regarding Primary Energy Sources
(Source: Created by Author)

Figure 1: Primary Resource usage 1970

Figure 2: Primary Resource usage during 2018
(Source: Bp.com, 2020)

Based on the comparison between the data of ION and BP statistical review provided in the renewable energy assignment, it has been found that primary resource usage during 1970 in Western Europe was 44%, in Japan it was 64% and in the USA the usage was 21%. Hence, the usage of primary energy sources during the year 1970 was highest in Japan which depicts that usage was maximum in Asian continent. On the other side, the consideration of the data of BP statistical review, it might be stated that usage of primary energy sources has been deteriorated in 2018. Based on the comparison, it is found that usage is huge in Asian continent. The usage of primary energy source is 48.3% which is undoubtedly huge and the reason is crude oil is cheap in Middle East countries including the UAE, Saudi Arabia and so on. Based on the overall analysis of above table and graphs, it has been found herein renewable energy assignment that during the year 2020, the consumption of primary energy resources can be decreased to 15% in Europe, 15% to the USA and 45% in Asian and Middle East countries.

 Estimation (Continent) Estimation Percentage (%) Europe 15% The USA 15% Asian and Middle East Countries 45%

Table 2: Estimation during 2020
(Source: Created by Author)

Figure 3: Graphical presentation of estimation during 2020
(Source: Created by Author)

Considering the above graphical analysis depicted in the renewable energy assignment, it has been found that the consumption of primary energy sources is high in case of Asia and Middle East but the usage of primary energy is very low in the USA and European country which depicts that renewable energy sources are used by Europe and the USA.

Reasons of similarities and dissimilarities
Based on the estimated report of 2020 undertaken in the renewable energy assignment, it has been identified that use of primary energy sources would be deteriorated as United Nations have strong focus on the development using renewable energy sources.

 The USA 2018 (figures in terawatt hour) 2020 9(TWh) Hydro 65 75 Nuclear 192 194 Renewable 103 109

Table 3: Estimated usage during 2020 in the USA
(Source: Created by Author)

 EUROPE 2018 (TWh) 2020 (TWh) Hydro 145 150 Nuclear 212 214 Renewable 172 220

Table 4: Estimated usage during 2020 in Europe
(Source: Created by Author)

Reason of Differences
Based on the above table it is clear that use of hydroelectricity would be increased as it fulfills huge demand of electricity in different countries.  Use of other renewable energy sources would also be increased in 2020 as almost all countries throughout the world have focus on the environmental sustainability. Hence, in future all countries of the world have target to enhance usage of renewable energy sources by reducing consumption of primary energy sources. The term renewable energy sources have been used as inexhaustible energy source in the report of ION considered herein renewable energy assignment which implies that the use of these sources can ensure sustainable environmental growth.

Reason of Similarities
The similarity in case of nuclear energy sources has been found which implies that the development of nuclear energy sources is common to all countries. The usage of nuclear energy has been started many years ago and the popularity has been increased as it provides carbon free electricity and environmental plunder has been reduced. Hence, different nations throughout the globe want to focus on the investment in other renewable energy sources. This why, the similarity has been identified in the result of the year 2018 and 2020.

Summarizing main uses
Use of Oil
By considering the views of Abdelkareem et al., (2018) in this renewable energy assignment, it is found that the entire world would be in different place without use of crude oils. This is because crude oil is considered for generating heat which is essential to warm house in the cold weather. Furthermore, crude oil has been used in case of producing different types of energies including gasoline, jet fuel and diesel.

Use of Coal
According to Leonard et al., (2018), three key usage of coal product are generation of electricity, steel production and production of cement. The usage of coal is common and it has been started from very beginning of the human life. As coal is a non-renewable energy source, excess usage of this source has deteriorated the storage of coal. This is why people are switching to the use of other renewable sources and maintaining the optimum storage of coal.

Using Nuclear Energy
As mentioned by Kok and Benli (2017), nuclear energy source has been used by almost all countries throughout the globe for creating electricity but it must be released first time from atom. Nevertheless, it can be stated that use of nuclear energy is popular in developed nations as initial investment cost of this energy source is very high. The nuclear energy is not only used in electricity generation, it has been used in medicine and agricultural development.

Usage of Natural Gas
As depicted by Baghban et al., (2016), the usage of natural gas is gradually increasing throughout the globe as it is considered as non-renewable energy source. It has been used as the supplement of crude oil which is used for the purpose of heating, electricity generation and cooking.

Use of solar energy
According to the view of (), use of solar energy is completely a new concept and use of this is gradually increasing throughout the globe as it has multiple usage including heating water, take salt away from the sea water and generating electricity based of solar cells.

Using Wind energy
As mentioned by Baharoon et al., (2016), wind energy has become popular along with solar energy at present age as it converts kinetic energy into the mechanical power. The mechanical power has been used to provide electricity to household, schools, businesses and hospitals.

Estimation of 2020
The estimation of 2020 would be made based on requirements of different energy sources and it would help to maintain equilibrium between demand and supply. In this case of renewable energy assignment following assumptions can be made

• Use of Non-renewable primary energy sources including coal has been reduced
• Countries have focused on the more use of renewable energy sources

Based on the above assumptions, following statistical analysis has been made

 Oil Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Energy Hydro Electricity Renewable USA 919.7 702.6 317 192.2 65.3 103.8 Total Europe 742 472 307.1 212.1 145.3 172.2 Total Middle East 412.1 475.6 7.9 1.6 3.4 1.7

Table 5: Result of 2018 (All figures in TWh)
(Source: Created by Author)

 Oil Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Energy Hydro Electricity Renewable USA 845 705 300 200 100 150 Total Europe 800 500 250 250 200 220 Total Middle East 450 500 5 19 6 2

Table 6: Estimations of 2020 (figures in TWh)
(Source; Created by Author)

Based on the category wise table analysis, it has been found that only Middle East countries have enhanced their focus on the use of non-renewable energy sources as price of crude oil and coal are cheap there and furthermore, huge amount of crude oil is available in middle east nations. Hence, the overall discussion build in this renewable energy assignment clearly depicts that except Middle East countries, the USA and Europe both have aim to enhance use of inexhaustible energy sources. This would help to maintain environmental sustainability and the equilibrium between supply and demand can be maintained. The information of BP statistical review shows that the consumption of renewable energy source is very poor in case of Middle East nations which implies that they do not have any focus on the usage of renewable energy sources.

Conclusion
Based on the above discussion provided in the renewable energy assignment, it has been found that use of non-renewable energy source is very high in Middle East countries compared to Europe and the USA. The information of BP statistical review clearly depicts that except Middle East all continents throughout the globe has aim to develop the use of non-renewable energy sources to maintain sustainability in the usage of energy sources. Based on the report of ION considered in the renewable energy assignment, it is found that use of inexhaustible energy sources can help to enhance environmental sustainability and huge demand of people can be fulfilled.

References
Abdelkareem, M.A., Assad, M.E.H., Sayed, E.T. and Soudan, B., 2018. Recent progress in the use of renewable energy sources to power water desalination plants. Desalination, 435, pp.97-113.

Baghban, A., Kashiwao, T., Bahadori, M., Ahmad, Z. and Bahadori, A., 2016. Estimation of natural gases water content using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. Renewable energy assignment Petroleum Science and Technology, 34(10), pp.891-897.

Baharoon, D.A., Rahman, H.A. and Fadhl, S.O., 2016. Publics? knowledge, attitudes and behavioral toward the use of solar energy in Yemen power sector. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, pp.498-515.

Bp.com. 2020. Available at: https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2019-full-report.pdf [Accessed 4 Mar. 2020].

Google Books. 2020. Availability of World Energy Resources. Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=TpbqCAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP8&dq=ION,+D.C.,+1975.%C2%A0%C2%A0Availability+of+World+Energy+Resources,+London:+Graham+and+Trotman+Ltd.&ots=CTmkBsJwD&sig=ilariBkEZUGBTmBBqV3Y2a25H10&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false [Accessed 4 Mar. 2020].

Hussain, A., Arif, S.M. and Aslam, M., 2017. Emerging renewable and sustainable energy technologies: State of the art. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 71, pp.12-28.

Kok, B. and Benli, H., 2017. Energy diversity and nuclear energy for sustainable development in Turkey. Renewable energy, 111, pp.870-877.

Leonard, M. D., Michaelides, E. E., and Michaelides, D. N. 2018. Renewable energy assignment Substitution of coal power plants with renewable energy sources–Shift of the power demand and energy storage. Energy conversion and management, 164, pp.27-35.

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